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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

n-Butyl 2-cyanoacrylate--substitute for IBCA in interventional neuroradiology: histopathologic and polymerization time studies.

Despite the development of new alternative embolic agents, the endovascular treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations continues to frequently require the use of cyanoacrylic glue, especially in situations where particulate or sclerosing agents are ineffective, such as when flow is very rapid or fistulous. Because isobutyl 2-cyanoacrylate (IBCA), the most commonly used embolic glue, is no longer available or manufactured, a real need exists for an alternative fast polymerizing agent. In vivo and in vitro studies were performed to compare IBCA with n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA, supplied as Histoacryl Blue), a tissue adhesive approved for surgical use in some countries. Polymerization times in static plasma were compared, and the effect of the addition of iophendylate oil or glacial acetic acid on polymerization was assessed. Polymerization times in vivo were compared after intraarterial injection into the internal carotid artery in pigs using a standardized technique. The histopathologic reactions to each glue in the embolized pig rete were assessed and compared over a period of 0-60 days after embolization. Our results show that while NBCA polymerization is demonstrably faster than IBCA in vitro, intraarterial injections of each glue show no significant difference in polymerization times. Like IBCA, NBCA polymerization can be predictably prolonged by the addition of oil or glacial acetic acid, though the effect is less for NBCA. Histopathologic reactions were similar, with acute vasculitis observed, becoming chronic and granulomatous after about 1 month. Both glues showed frequent foci of extravascular extrusion through the embolized rete and recanalization of previously occluded embolized vessels. We conclude that NBCA has clinical and biologic behaviors similar to IBCA, and therefore should be an acceptable alternative to IBCA for intravascular use.[1]


  1. n-Butyl 2-cyanoacrylate--substitute for IBCA in interventional neuroradiology: histopathologic and polymerization time studies. Brothers, M.F., Kaufmann, J.C., Fox, A.J., Deveikis, J.P. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (1989) [Pubmed]
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