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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Recognition of noninfectious influenza virus by class I-restricted murine cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

We have recently shown that murine target cells can be sensitized for lysis by class I-restricted influenza virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) using noninfectious influenza virus. Sensitization is dependent on inactivation of viral neuraminidase activity (which can be achieved by heating virus); and requires fusion of viral and cellular membranes. In the present study, we have examined recognition of antigens derived from heat-treated virus by cloned CTL lines induced by immunization with infectious virus. Target cells sensitized with heat-treated virus were recognized by all 11 CTL clones that were specific for internal virion proteins (nucleoprotein and basic polymerase 1), and by one of six clones specific for the major viral glycoprotein (the hemagglutinin). Immunization of mice with heat-treated virus primed their splenocytes for secondary in vitro CTL responses. CTL generated in this manner recognized target cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing cloned influenza virus gene products. These findings indicate that both integral membrane proteins and internal proteins that comprise virions can be processed by antigen-presenting cells for recognition by class I-restricted CTL. It also appears that not all hemagglutinin determinants recognized on virus-infected cells are presented by cells sensitized with heat-treated virus.[1]


  1. Recognition of noninfectious influenza virus by class I-restricted murine cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Hosaka, Y., Sasao, F., Yamanaka, K., Bennink, J.R., Yewdell, J.W. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
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