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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Calcium-induced condensation-reorganization phenomena in multilamellar vesicles of phosphatidic acid. pH potentiometric and 31P-NMR, Raman and ESR spectroscopic studies.

In biological membranes, the anionic characteristics of the polar headgroup of phosphatidic acids are responsible for structural changes induced by Ca2+ in many cellular processes. The very simple headgroup structure of dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid (DPPA) offers particular advantages as a model to study the interactions between Ca2+ and natural phosphatidic acids such as cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine. The effects of calcium ions on DPPA membranes have been studied as a function of temperature by potentiometry and by Raman, ESR and 31P-NMR spectroscopies. The protons in monosodic DPPA liposomes have been considered as a probe to detect pH variations resulting from introduction of Ca2+ inside the membrane. This method has also allowed us to determine the stoichiometry of this reaction: 2 DPPA(H) + Ca2+----Ca(DPPA)2 + 2H+. 31P-NMR spectroscopy has been used to detect reorganization-condensation phenomena in multilamellar vesicles of DPPA under the influence of calcium and temperature. Furthermore, the temperature profiles obtained from Raman spectra for Ca(DPPA)2 membranes provide conclusive evidence that Ca2+ induces major reorganization of the phosphatidic acid component into a highly ordered phase. Quantitative estimates of the degree of motional restriction of spin-labeled soaps embedded inside membranes composed of DPPA with or without Ca2+ have been made using ESR technique. These results are discussed and compared to those found previously for a natural phosphatidic acids such as phosphatidylserine.[1]


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