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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Glutathione conjugates of 2-bromohydroquinone are nephrotoxic.

Incubation of either o-bromophenol or 2-bromohydroquinone with rat liver microsomes and 0.25 mM 35S-glutathione (GSH) gave rise to several isomeric 35S-GSH conjugates. A mixture of these isomeric GSH conjugates was prepared chemically and two were purified by HPLC; 1H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that one was 2-bromo-3-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone and the other was a disubstituted GSH conjugate which could be either 2-bromo-3,5-(diglutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone or 2-bromo-3,6-(diglutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone. Injection of the disubstituted GSH conjugate intravenously to rats caused substantial elevations in blood urea nitrogen levels. Treatment of rats with AT-125 (Acivicin; NSC 163501; 10 mg/kg ip) caused a substantial inhibition of kidney gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity and decreased 2-bromohydroquinone-mediated elevations in blood urea nitrogen. These findings are consistent with the view that the kidney necrosis observed after administration of either bromobenzene (1), o-bromophenol (2), or 2-bromohydroquinone (3) might be due in part to 2-bromohydroquinone GSH conjugates formed in the liver and subsequently transported to the kidney and converted to ultimate nephrotoxic metabolite(s).[1]


  1. Glutathione conjugates of 2-bromohydroquinone are nephrotoxic. Monks, T.J., Lau, S.S., Highet, R.J., Gillette, J.R. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1985) [Pubmed]
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