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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effects of castanospermine and 1-deoxynojirimycin on insulin receptor biogenesis. Evidence for a role of glucose removal from core oligosaccharides.

The insulin proreceptor is a 190-kDa glycoprotein that is processed to mature alpha (135-kDa) and beta (95-kDa) subunits. In order to determine the role of carbohydrate chain processing in insulin receptor biogenesis, we investigated the effect of inhibiting glucose removal from core oligosaccharides of the insulin proreceptor with glucosidase inhibitors, castanospermine and 1-deoxynojirimycin. Cultured IM-9 lymphocytes treated with inhibitors had 50% reduction in surface insulin receptors as demonstrated by ligand binding, affinity cross-linking with 125I-insulin, and lactoperoxidase/Na 125I labeling studies. Degradation rates of surface labeled receptors were similar in both control and inhibitor-treated cells (t1/2 = 5 h); thus, accelerated receptor degradation could not account for this reduction. Biosynthetic labeling experiments with [3H]leucine and [3H]mannose identified an apparently higher molecular size proreceptor (approximately 205 kDa) that failed to show the characteristic decline with time as seen in the normal 190-kDa proreceptor. Along with this finding, the biosynthetic label appearing in the mature subunits was reduced in these inhibitor-treated cells. Endoglycosidase H treatment of both precursors produced identical 170-kDa bands. Carbohydrate chains released from the 205-kDa precursor by endoglycosidase H migrated in the same position as the Glc2-3Man9GlcNAc standards when separated by high performance liquid chromatography, whereas the 190-kDa proreceptor oligosaccharides migrated similar to the Man7-9GlcNAc chains. Although the mature subunits of control and inhibitor-treated cells demonstrated equal electrophoretic mobility, the endoglycosidase H-sensitive oligosaccharides of the mature subunits in treated cells also contained residues that migrated similar to the Glc2-3Man9GlcNAc standards. Thus, glucose removal from core oligosaccharides is apparently not necessary for the cleavage of the insulin proreceptor, but does delay processing of this precursor, which probably accounts for the reduction in cell-surface receptors.[1]


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