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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Ontogeny and regional distribution of proenkephalin- and prodynorphin-derived peptides and opioid receptors in rat hippocampus.

Levels of prodynorphin- and proenkephalin-derived peptides were determined in whole hippocampus of prenatal and early postnatal rats and in five regions of the hippocampus of the adult rat. Using autoradiography, opioid receptor subtypes were localized in coronal sections of adult hippocampus. The opioid peptides are present in very low concentrations in prenatal hippocampus, with only dynorphin B and alpha-neo-endorphin being present in significant amounts. The main increase in concentrations of the opioid peptides occur between day 7 and 14 postnatally, when dynorphin A, dynorphin A-(1-8), dynorphin B and alpha-neo-endorphin reach their adult levels. beta-Neo-endorphin and [Met]enkephalyl-Arg-Gly-Leu do not reach their maximal level until later in development. There is a distinct differential distribution of the opioid peptides in the subregions of the hippocampus; the subiculum and CA1 are relatively poor in prodynorphin-derived peptides but do contain significant amounts of [Met]enkephalin and [Leu]enkephalin. Very high concentrations of dynorphin B and alpha-neo-endorphin are present in region CA4. Dynorphin A-(1-8) and [Met]enkephalin have their highest concentrations in the dentate gyrus. There is a 5-fold higher concentration of [Met]enkephalin in the ventral hippocampus compared to the dorsal hippocampus. A similar trend is seen with dynorphin A-(1-8) but not with the other opioid peptides. The most abundant opioid receptor population in the hippocampus is of the mu type and it is densest in and around stratum pyramidale of the region CA3. There are relatively few kappa opioid receptors in the rat hippocampus. These results indicate the presence of at least two independent opioid neuronal systems (enkephalin and dynorphin) in rat hippocampus and the presence of mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptor subtypes.[1]


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