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Gene Review

Pdyn  -  prodynorphin

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Beta-neoendorphin-dynorphin, Preprodynorphin, Proenkephalin-B
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Disease relevance of Pdyn

  • Recombinant vaccinia virus vectors were used to coexpress proDyn and PC1 in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma and mouse AtT-20 corticotroph cells [1].
  • Expression of the prodynorphin gene after experimental brain injury and its role in behavioral dysfunction [2].
  • In a model of peripheral inflammation and hyperalgesia, an oligodeoxyribonucleotide probe complementary to a portion of preprodynorphin mRNA and antisera to dynorphin A-(1-8) were used to localize changes in dynorphin mRNA and peptide to individual spinal cord neurons [3].
  • Capsaicin had minimal effects on the behavioral hyperalgesia and edema associated with the hindpaw inflammation and on the constitutive expression of preprodynorphin (PPD) mRNA and preproenkephalin mRNA in the spinal cord [4].
  • These data provide compelling evidence of a causal role for striatal fosB induction in the development of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the rat and of a positive regulation of prodynorphin gene expression by FosB-related transcription factors [5].

Psychiatry related information on Pdyn


High impact information on Pdyn


Chemical compound and disease context of Pdyn

  • The results demonstrated that CFA induced more intense hyperalgesia and up-expression of spinal PPD mRNA in ADX rats than in control rats, while both of these intensified reactions could be significantly suppressed by subcutaneous pretreatment with DEX [12].

Biological context of Pdyn


Anatomical context of Pdyn


Associations of Pdyn with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Pdyn


Co-localisations of Pdyn

  • Double in situ hybridization studies showed that striatal NGFI-B mRNA colocalized with a subset of preproenkephalin and prodynorphin positive spiny neurons within the dorsomedial striatum; 22--28% of all opiate-peptide positive cells co-expressed NGFI-B mRNA [21].

Regulatory relationships of Pdyn


Other interactions of Pdyn


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pdyn


  1. Processing of prodynorphin by the prohormone convertase PC1 results in high molecular weight intermediate forms. Cleavage at a single arginine residue. Dupuy, A., Lindberg, I., Zhou, Y., Akil, H., Lazure, C., Chrétien, M., Seidah, N.G., Day, R. FEBS Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of the prodynorphin gene after experimental brain injury and its role in behavioral dysfunction. Redell, J.B., Moore, A.N., Dash, P.K. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. In situ hybridization histochemistry and immunocytochemistry reveal an increase in spinal dynorphin biosynthesis in a rat model of peripheral inflammation and hyperalgesia. Ruda, M.A., Iadarola, M.J., Cohen, L.V., Young, W.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Neonatal capsaicin treatment attenuates spinal Fos activation and dynorphin gene expression following peripheral tissue inflammation and hyperalgesia. Hylden, J.L., Noguchi, K., Ruda, M.A. J. Neurosci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Striatal fosB expression is causally linked with l-DOPA-induced abnormal involuntary movements and the associated upregulation of striatal prodynorphin mRNA in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Andersson, M., Hilbertson, A., Cenci, M.A. Neurobiol. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Dynorphin- and enkephalin-like immunoreactivity is altered in limbic-basal ganglia regions of rat brain after repeated electroconvulsive shock. Kanamatsu, T., McGinty, J.F., Mitchell, C.L., Hong, J.S. J. Neurosci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Blunted response to cocaine in the Flinders hypercholinergic animal model of depression. Fagergren, P., Overstreet, D.H., Goiny, M., Hurd, Y.L. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Differences between alcohol-preferring (AA) and alcohol-avoiding (ANA) rats in the prodynorphin and proenkephalin systems. Nylander, I., Hyytiä, P., Forsander, O., Terenius, L. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of cocaine and amphetamine on biosynthesis of proenkephalin and prodynorphin in some regions of the rat limbic system. Turchan, J., Maj, M., Przewłocka, B., Przewłocki, R. Polish journal of pharmacology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. A dynorphinergic pathway of Leu-enkephalin production in rat substantia nigra. Zamir, N., Palkovits, M., Weber, E., Mezey, E., Brownstein, M.J. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Neuronal adaptation to amphetamine and dopamine: molecular mechanisms of prodynorphin gene regulation in rat striatum. Cole, R.L., Konradi, C., Douglass, J., Hyman, S.E. Neuron (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoid suppresses up-regulation of preprodynorphin mRNA and hyperalgesia in rats with peripheral inflammation. Zhang, R.X., Lao, L., Qiao, J.T., Malsnee, K., Ruda, M.A. Neurosci. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Sequence and expression of the rat prodynorphin gene. Civelli, O., Douglass, J., Goldstein, A., Herbert, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of the rat prodynorphin gene. Douglass, J., McMurray, C.T., Garrett, J.E., Adelman, J.P., Calavetta, L. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Changes of mRNA expression of enkephalin and prodynorphin in hippocampus of rats with chronic immobilization stress. Chen, J.X., Li, W., Zhao, X., Yang, J.X., Xu, H.Y., Wang, Z.F., Yue, G.X. World J. Gastroenterol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Corelease of dynorphin-like immunoreactivity, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone from rat adenohypophysis in vitro. Knepel, W., Schwaninger, M., Döhler, K.D. Endocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Role of serotonin on cocaine-mediated effects on prodynorphin gene expression in the rat brain. Di Benedetto, M., D'Addario, C., Collins, S., Izenwasser, S., Candeletti, S., Romualdi, P. J. Mol. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Differential processing of prodynorphin and proenkephalin in specific regions of the rat brain. Zamir, N., Weber, E., Palkovits, M., Brownstein, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Comparison of basal and D-1 dopamine receptor agonist-stimulated neuropeptide gene expression in caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens of ad libitum fed and food-restricted rats. Haberny, S.L., Carr, K.D. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Amphetamine-induced preprodynorphin mRNA expression and kappa-opioid receptor binding in basal ganglia of adult rats after prenatal exposure to diazepam. Inderbitzin, S., Lauber, M.E., Schlumpf, M., Lichtensteiger, W. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Cellular mRNA expression of the transcription factor NGFI-B suggests a gene regulatory role in striatal opiate-peptide neurons. Bäckman, C., Hoffer, B.J., Misawa, H., Morales, M. Brain Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Brain substrates activated by electroacupuncture (EA) of different frequencies (II): Role of Fos/Jun proteins in EA-induced transcription of preproenkephalin and preprodynorphin genes. Guo, H.F., Tian, J., Wang, X., Fang, Y., Hou, Y., Han, J. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. ERK MAP kinase activation in superficial spinal cord neurons induces prodynorphin and NK-1 upregulation and contributes to persistent inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. Ji, R.R., Befort, K., Brenner, G.J., Woolf, C.J. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Dopamine receptor mRNA expression patterns by opioid peptide cells in the nucleus accumbens of the rat: a double in situ hybridization study. Curran, E.J., Watson, S.J. J. Comp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Kindled seizure-induced c-fos and prodynorphin mRNA expressions are unrelated in the rat brain. Simonato, M., Bregola, G., Donatini, A., Bianchi, C., Beani, L., Ferri, S., Romualdi, P. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Gene expression in dopamine and GABA systems in an animal model of schizophrenia: effects of antipsychotic drugs. Lipska, B.K., Lerman, D.N., Khaing, Z.Z., Weickert, C.S., Weinberger, D.R. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Hemodynamic responses of conscious rats following intrathecal injections of prodynorphin-derived opioids: independence of action of intrathecal arginine vasopressin. Thornhill, J.A., Pittman, Q.J. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Expression of vasopressin and opiates but not of oxytocin genes studied by in situ hybridization in embryonic rat brain primary cultures. Di Scala-Guenot, D., Strosser, M.T., Felix, J.M., Richard, P. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Spinal NF-kB activation induces COX-2 upregulation and contributes to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. Lee, K.M., Kang, B.S., Lee, H.L., Son, S.J., Hwang, S.H., Kim, D.S., Park, J.S., Cho, H.J. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Reversal of dyskinesias in an animal model of Parkinson's disease by continuous L-DOPA delivery using rAAV vectors. Carlsson, T., Winkler, C., Burger, C., Muzyczka, N., Mandel, R.J., Cenci, A., Björklund, A., Kirik, D. Brain (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Molecular pathways of pain: Fos/Jun-mediated activation of a noncanonical AP-1 site in the prodynorphin gene. Naranjo, J.R., Mellström, B., Achaval, M., Sassone-Corsi, P. Neuron (1991) [Pubmed]
  32. Atypical prodynorphin gene expression in corticosteroid-producing cells of the rat adrenal gland. Day, R., Schafer, M.K., Collard, M.W., Watson, S.J., Akil, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Relative contents and concomitant release of prodynorphin/neoendorphin-derived peptides in rat hippocampus. Chavkin, C., Bakhit, C., Weber, E., Bloom, F.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Electrical stimulation in vivo increases the expression of proenkephalin mRNA and decreases the expression of prodynorphin mRNA in rat hippocampal granule cells. Morris, B.J., Feasey, K.J., ten Bruggencate, G., Herz, A., Höllt, V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
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