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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Frameshift mutagenesis by nitracrine analogues in wild-type, uvrB, polA and recA strains of Salmonella typhimurium, with and without plasmid pKM101.

The mutagenic potential of 9-[(3-dimethylaminopropyl)amino]-acridine and its 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-nitro derivatives was studied in several strains of Salmonella typhimurium carrying the frameshift marker hisC3076. The strains all carried deep rough (rfa) mutations, and were either wild-type with respect to DNA repair capacity or carried recA, uvrB, polA1 or polA3 (amber) mutations. Derivatives with and without plasmid pKM101 were also studied. The des-nitro compound resembled 9 aminoacridine and other simple intercalating compounds. Both toxicity and mutagenesis were apparently unaffected by the uvrB and recA mutations or by the presence of plasmid pKM101. However, mutagenicity was reduced by the polA1 mutation, and virtually eliminated by the polA3 mutation. The drug was substantially more toxic in the latter, slightly more toxic in the former, of these polA- strains. Plasmid pKM101 enhanced mutagenesis and protected from toxicity in both polA1- and polA3- strains, although it did not restore either of these parameters to the level in the wild-type strain. The 2-nitro compound was generally similar to the des-nitro compound, except that it was considerably more toxic and apparently non-mutagenic in the recA-bearing strain. By contrast, mutagenicity of the 3- and 4-nitro compounds was enhanced by the uvrB mutation and by the presence of the plasmid. These compounds were highly toxic but non-mutagenic in the recA- strain, and showed some increased toxicity in polA1- and polA3- strains. The 1-nitro compound has been previously found to cross-link DNA. Unlike well-characterised cross-linkers such as mitomycin C it was highly mutagenic in the uvrB- strain, and this mutagenesis was enhanced by plasmid pKM101, but eliminated by the recA mutation. At high doses, where the drug was completely toxic towards uvrB- or recA-carrying strains, it became mutagenic in the DNA-repair-proficient strains. This 'high-dose' mutagenesis was enhanced by plasmid pKM101, but reduced by the polA1 mutation and almost eliminated by the polA3 mutation. Although there are several possible interpretations of these data, they are compatible with the suggestion that the lesion induced by high doses (but not by low doses) of nitracrine is a cross-link, but that this is not the major mutagenic lesion.[1]


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