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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Evaluation of a pediatric multiple vitamin preparation for total parenteral nutrition. II. Blood levels of vitamins A, D, and E.

This study represents the first attempt to evaluate the American Medical Association Nutrition Advisory Group (NAG) recommendations for intravenous vitamin A, D, and E dosages for infants and children. Patients studied included 18 preterm infants (group 1) and 26 term infants and children (group 2A) receiving total parenteral nutrition for 2 to 4 weeks and eight infants and children receiving total parenteral nutrition for 3 to 6 months (group 2B). Term gestation infants and children up to 11 years of age all received the same dosages (those that were recommended by the NAG for children weighing more than 10 kg). Preterm infants received 65% of these doses. In group 1, cord blood alpha-tocopherol levels were less than 0.22 mg/dL in seven preterm infants (reference value = 0.29 +/- 0.04), but mean levels increased to 1.65 +/- 0.17 mg/dL after four days of treatment. Eight infants consistently received additional vitamin E orally (80 to 150 mg daily), and their levels increased to 2.18 +/- 0.26 mg/dL by four days of study and to 3.49 +/- 0.57 mg/dL after 3 weeks. Oral supplementation in the preterm infants appeared to be unnecessary because intravenous vitamins alone maintained levels above 1.1 mg/dL. In group 2, alpha-tocopherol levels were maintained within the reference range. Patients receiving lipid emulsions containing substantial quantities of alpha-tocopherol had significantly higher blood levels than patients receiving lipid emulsions containing little alpha-tocopherol (P less than .01). Mean 25-OH vitamin D levels were maintained above or within the reference range in groups 2A and 2B.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[1]


  1. Evaluation of a pediatric multiple vitamin preparation for total parenteral nutrition. II. Blood levels of vitamins A, D, and E. Greene, H.L., Moore, M.E., Phillips, B., Franck, L., Shulman, R.J., Ament, M.E., Murrell, J.E., Chan, M.M., Said, H.M. Pediatrics (1986) [Pubmed]
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