The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Stimulation of neutrophil actin polymerization and degranulation by opsonized and unopsonized Candida albicans hyphae and zymosan.

We previously showed that unopsonized Candida albicans hyphae stimulated a delayed rise in the putative neutrophil second messengers Ca2+ and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and subsequent O2- release, as compared with opsonized hyphae or zymosan. Therefore, cytoskeletal and degranulation temporal responses to these stimuli were examined. Unopsonized zymosan elicited no neutrophil responses under the experimental condition used. Neutrophil actin polymerization (quantitated by fluorescent measurements of NBD phallacidin) was rapid after stimulation by opsonized hyphae or zymosan (peaking at 1 and 2 min, respectively). This corresponded to observed changes in microscopic actin polymerization, measured with rhodamine phalloidin, which progressed from initially diffuse to collarlike to cylinderlike staining patterns surrounding the hyphae. Compared with opsonized hyphae, unopsonized hyphae resulted in a delayed appearance of the last two visible patterns (P less than 0.05) and in quantitative actin polymerization despite similarly rapid initial contact and spreading over the hyphae by neutrophils. Unlike other neutrophil responses, degranulation did not follow the delayed patterns of responses to stimulation with unopsonized hyphae. In the absence of the release of the cytoplasmic marker lactate dehydrogenase, the release of beta-glucuronidase, an azurophil granule marker, gradually and progressively rose in response to all of the stimuli but unopsonized zymosan. The low but significant levels observed were within a range consistent with published results for degranulation responses to particulate stimuli without cytochalasin B. A quantitative immunoassay of lactoferrin, a specific granule marker, detected no release into supernatants, and immunofluorescent staining indicated concomitant depletion of lactoferrin from neutrophil granules and binding to hyphal and neutrophil surfaces after stimulation by unopsonized hyphae. Thus, the delayed actin polymerization response to unopsonized hyphae occurred subsequent to neutrophil attachment and spreading and resembled the temporal sequence of other neutrophil responses linked to the respiratory burst. In contrast, the degranulation responses to all stimuli appeared to begin and progress gradually after observed attachment and spreading of the neutrophil over hyphal surfaces without a clear temporal relationship to rises in cytoplasmic Ca2+ or F-actin. In addition, the avid binding of released lactoferrin to cell surfaces eliminates its value as a quantitative marker of enzyme release but raises the possibility that it might participate in fungicidal activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[1]


WikiGenes - Universities