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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The role of glutathione conjugate metabolism and cysteine conjugate beta-lyase in the mechanism of S-cysteine conjugate toxicity in LLC-PK1 cells.

A cell line derived from pig kidney, LLC-PK1, was grown in a culture system in which the cells express morphological and biochemical characteristics of the proximal tubule. This model was used to investigate the mechanism of S-cysteine conjugate toxicity and the role of glutathione conjugate metabolism. LLC-PK1 cells have the degradative enzymes of the mercapturate pathway, and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-glutathione are toxic. S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)-L-glutathione is not toxic when the cells are pretreated with AT-125, an inhibitor of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. The cells respond to a variety of toxic cysteine conjugates. Cysteine conjugate beta-lyase activity is not detectable by standard assays, but can be measured using radiolabeled S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine. Pyruvate stimulates the beta-elimination reaction with S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine as substrate 2-3-fold. The data suggest that a side transamination reaction regulates the flux of substrate through the beta-elimination pathway; therefore, cysteine conjugate beta-lyase in LLC-PK1 cells may be regulated by transamination, and measurement of lyase activity in some systems may require the presence of alpha-ketoacids. Aminoxyacetic acid blocks both the metabolism of S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine to a reactive species which covalently binds to cellular macromolecules and toxicity. Glutathione inhibits the binding of the sulfur containing cleavage fragment to acid insoluble material in vitro. The data provide direct evidence that S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine is metabolized to a reactive species which covalently binds to cellular macromolecules, and the binding is proportional to toxicity.[1]


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