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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Electron spin resonance study of the role of NO . catalase in the activation of guanylate cyclase by NaN3 and NH2OH. Modulation of enzyme responses by heme proteins and their nitrosyl derivatives.

The role of NO . catalase in the activation of partially purified soluble guanylate cyclase of rat liver by NaN3 and NH2OH was examined by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Equilibration of bovine liver catalase with NO resulted in formation of a paramagnetic species exhibiting a three-line ESR spectrum similar to that of NO . catalase. This paramagnetic complex produced concentration-dependent stimulation of preparations of partially purified guanylate cyclase that were devoid of detectable endogenous heme content. The stimulation of partially purified guanylate cyclase by NO . catalase was similar to that obtained with NO . hemoglobin and with NO . cytochrome P-420 prepared by reaction of hepatic microsomes of phenobarbital-treated rats with NO. By contrast, these same enzyme preparations did not respond to NO or catalase alone. Addition of hematin or hemoglobin plus a reducing agent to purified guanylate cyclase restored enzyme responsiveness to NO and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), but not to NaN3 or NH2OH. Responses to the latter agents were restored by catalase and potentiated by a H2O2-generating system. Formation of the NO . catalase complex was evident by ESR spectroscopy in test solutions containing NaN3 or nh2oh, catalase, and a glucose-glucose oxidase, H2O2-generating system. The presence of NO . catalase correlated well with the ability of test solutions to activate purified guanylate cyclase. These results provide evidence for catalase-dependent NO generation from NaN3 and NH2OH under conditions leading to guanylate cyclase activation. Preformed NO . hemoglobin or NO . cytochrome P-420 also activated heme-deficient partially purified guanylate cyclase. The ability of several preformed NO . heme protein complexes, but not NO, to stimulate heme-deficient guanylate cyclase supports the concept that formation of the paramagnetic nitrosyl . heme complex, mediated by either enzymatic or nonenzymatic reactions, is a common and essential step in the process by which NO or NO-forming compounds activate guanylate cyclase. In the absence of the NO ligand, both hemoglobin and catalase suppress the stimulatory effects of the corresponding NO . heme proteins on guanylate cyclase. Release of each heme protein from the NO . heme protein complex occurs more rapidly under aerobic compared to anaerobic conditions. However, hemoglobin is approximately 2000 times more effective as an inhibitor of NO . hemoglobin stimulation of guanylate cyclase than is catalase as an inhibitor of NO . catalase action. This finding may explain the more pronounced decline in the rate of cGMP generation in air in the presence of NO . hemoglobin compared to NO . catalase. The results imply that guanylate cyclase responses to activators that can form NO are determined by both the stimulatory activity of the endogenous heme acceptors of NO and the relative inhibitory effects of the unliganded heme proteins present.[1]


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