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Gene Review

CAT  -  catalase

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of CAT


High impact information on CAT

  • In addition, bovine catalase uses unbound NAD(P)H to prevent substrate inactivation without displacing catalase-bound NADP(+) [6].
  • TNF alpha treatment (100 U/ml for 6 h) decreased total GSH content and concomitantly increased the oxidized GSH content, but did not alter the cellular catalase activity [7].
  • Furthermore, the addition of catalase (3000 U/ml) to corneas incubated with G/GO for 6 hours markedly reduced the production of LCFs [8].
  • Inactivation of catalase by phenylhydrazine. Formation of a stable aryl-iron heme complex [9].
  • The absolute chirality of N-ethylprotoporphyrin IX isolated from catalase inactivated with ethylhydrazine confirms that the prosthetic heme has the same chiral orientation in the active site as it does in hemoglobin [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of CAT


Biological context of CAT

  • Lipid peroxidation was also strongly inhibited by singlet oxygen scavengers, e.g. dimethylfuran and diphenylfuran, and by catalase [12].
  • Hydroxyl radicals, superoxide and H2O2 were also not involved, since the relative number of single strand breaks and of sites of base loss (AP sites) was much lower than in the case of DNA damage induced by hydroxyl radicals and since the presence of SOD or catalase had no effect on the extent of the damage [13].
  • Thus, extremely high catalase activity and suppression of LPCR are apparently the main mechanisms of the unusually high H202R of RSV-SR transformants, while its suppression by activated ras oncogenes may also take place in some transformants, free of v-src activity [14].
  • Glycosylation of catalase inhibitor necessary for activity [15].
  • cDNA sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of bovine oviductal fluid catalase [16].

Anatomical context of CAT


Associations of CAT with chemical compounds

  • Transforming growth factor-betas block cytokine induction of catalase and xanthine oxidase mRNA levels in cultured rat cardiac cells [21].
  • The function of the bound NADPH, which is tightly bound in bovine liver catalase, has been unknown [22].
  • A novel NADPH:(bound) NADP+ reductase and NADH:(bound) NADP+ transhydrogenase function in bovine liver catalase [22].
  • Incubation of cells with catalase or treatment of the albumin fraction with isoniazid abolished the stimulation of glucose uptake by polyamines but did not alter the stimulatory effects of insulin or vitamin K5 [23].
  • The presence of NO . catalase correlated well with the ability of test solutions to activate purified guanylate cyclase [17].

Regulatory relationships of CAT

  • Cytotoxicity caused by bovine serum amine oxidase (5.7 x 10(-3) U/mL) and spermine (340 microM) was completely inhibited by catalase only during short incubation times after which time cytotoxicity occurred [24].

Other interactions of CAT

  • Bovine liver catalase, bovine pancreatic insulin, and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A when individually cospray-dried with lactose showed no extensive initial crystallinity by powder X-ray diffraction, but proteins cospray-dried with mannitol generally showed evidence of mannitol component crystallinity [25].
  • However, cyanogen bromide treatment of 2 of the inactive proteins, bovine catalase and concanavalin A from jack bean, yielded peptide fragments which served as substrates for glycosylation [26].
  • 2. Through this cyclic reaction of myoglobin between metMb(III) and ferryl-Mb(IV), we proposed that H2O2, one of the potent oxidants in vivo, can be decomposed continuously in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissues in the absence of catalase and peroxidase [27].
  • TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and antioxidants (superoxide dismutase; catalase; and dimethyl sulfoxide) all induced RBC adhesion to BPAEC [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CAT

  • There was no significant attenuation in EC injury following incubation with reperfusion effluent stored for 24 h, supplementation with antioxidants (superoxide dismutase + catalase), or inhibition of xanthine oxidase with allopurinol or tungstate [29].
  • SDS/PAGE analysis confirmed that alpha-crystallin had formed a soluble complex with catalase after a period of thermal stress [30].
  • Two different fractions were present in crystalline bovine liver catalase, and could be resolved using dye-ligand affinity chromatography with Red-A Matrex gel containing Procion HE 3B [3].
  • Negatively charged ultrafine silica particles (average diameter 20 nm) were used as support materials for adsorption immobilization of porcine trypsin, horseradish peroxidase, and bovine catalase under various conditions, and the changes in the enzyme activities and the circular dichroism (CD) spectra of these enzymes upon adsorption were measured [31].
  • Using a chemical protein modification approach, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies and circular dichroism spectropolarimetry, this study investigates the parameters involved in anti-aggregation mechanism of bovine liver catalase [32].


  1. Decreased antioxidant defence and increased oxidant stress during dexamethasone-induced apoptosis: bcl-2 prevents the loss of antioxidant enzyme activity. Baker, A.F., Briehl, M.M., Dorr, R., Powis, G. Cell Death Differ. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Activity, peroxide compound formation, and heme d synthesis in Escherichia coli HPII catalase. Obinger, C., Maj, M., Nicholls, P., Loewen, P. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Interaction between pyridine adenine dinucleotides and bovine liver catalase: a chromatographic and spectral study. Jouve, H.M., Pelmont, J., Gaillard, J. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Chromosomal aberrations in V79 cells induced by superoxide radical generated by the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system. Iwata, K., Shibuya, H., Ohkawa, Y., Inui, N. Toxicol. Lett. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Role of oxygen radicals in the bacteriostatic effect of whey and production of bacterial growth by free radical scavengers. Mattila, T. J. Dairy Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Mammalian catalase: a venerable enzyme with new mysteries. Kirkman, H.N., Gaetani, G.F. Trends Biochem. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated decrease in glutathione increases the sensitivity of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells to H2O2. Ishii, Y., Partridge, C.A., Del Vecchio, P.J., Malik, A.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization of neutrophil and monocyte specific chemotactic factors derived from the cornea in response to hydrogen peroxide injury. Elgebaly, S.A., Herkert, N., O'Rourke, J., Kreutzer, D.L. Am. J. Pathol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Inactivation of catalase by phenylhydrazine. Formation of a stable aryl-iron heme complex. Ortiz de Montellano, P.R., Kerr, D.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Modulation of hydrogen peroxide release from vascular endothelial cells by oxygen. Kinnula, V.L., Mirza, Z., Crapo, J.D., Whorton, A.R. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. The effect of haematin and catalase on Streptococcus faecalis var. zymogenes growing on glycerol. Clarke, D.J., Knowles, C.J. J. Gen. Microbiol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Paraquat and NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation in lung microsomes. Misra, H.P., Gorsky, L.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Endonuclease-sensitive DNA modifications induced by acetone and acetophenone as photosensitizers. Epe, B., Henzl, H., Adam, W., Saha-Möller, C.R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Mechanisms of unusually high antioxidant activity of RSV-SR-transformed cells and of its suppression by activated p21ras. Deichman, G.I., Kashkina, L.M., Mizenina, O.A., Gorojanskaya, E.G., Nikiforov, M.A., Gudkov, A.V., Dyakova, N.A., Komelkov, A.V., Prilutskaya, M.O., Kushlinsky, N.E., Tatosyan, A.G. Int. J. Cancer (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Glycosylation of catalase inhibitor necessary for activity. Tsaftaris, A.S., Sorenson, J.C., Scandalios, J.G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1980) [Pubmed]
  16. cDNA sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of bovine oviductal fluid catalase. Lapointe, S., Légaré, C., Gaudreault, C., Sullivan, R., Sirard, M.A. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Electron spin resonance study of the role of NO . catalase in the activation of guanylate cyclase by NaN3 and NH2OH. Modulation of enzyme responses by heme proteins and their nitrosyl derivatives. Craven, P.A., DeRubertis, F.R., Pratt, D.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Formation of keto and hydroxy compounds of linoleic acid in submitochondrial particles of bovine heart. Iwase, H., Takatori, T., Nagao, M., Nijima, H., Iwadate, K., Matsuda, Y., Kobayashi, M. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Fe2+-induced lysis and lipid peroxidation of chromaffin granules. Spears, R.M., Holz, R.W. J. Neurochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Purification and properties of the soluble carnitine palmitoyltransferase from bovine liver mitochondria. Ramsay, R.R., Derrick, J.P., Friend, A.S., Tubbs, P.K. Biochem. J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Transforming growth factor-betas block cytokine induction of catalase and xanthine oxidase mRNA levels in cultured rat cardiac cells. Flanders, K.C., Bhandiwad, A.R., Winokur, T.S. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. A novel NADPH:(bound) NADP+ reductase and NADH:(bound) NADP+ transhydrogenase function in bovine liver catalase. Gaetani, G.F., Ferraris, A.M., Sanna, P., Kirkman, H.N. Biochem. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Insulin-like effects of polyamines in fat cells. Mediation by H2O2 formation. Livingston, J.N., Gurny, P.A., Lockwood, D.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. Aldehyde dehydrogenase and cytotoxicity of purified bovine serum amine oxidase and spermine in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Averill-Bates, D.A., Agostinelli, E., Przybytkowski, E., Mondovi, B. Biochem. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Water vapor sorption studies on the physical stability of a series of spray-dried protein/sugar powders for inhalation. Forbes, R.T., Davis, K.G., Hindle, M., Clarke, J.G., Maas, J. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Enzymatic conversion of proteins to glycoproteins by lipid-linked saccharides: a study of potential exogenous acceptor proteins. Kronquist, K.E., Lennarz, W.J. J. Supramol. Struct. (1978) [Pubmed]
  27. Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by metmyoglobin: a cyclic formation of the ferryl intermediate. Tajima, G., Shikama, K. Int. J. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Endotoxin-induced adhesion of red blood cells to pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Tissot Van Patot, M.C., MacKenzie, S., Tucker, A., Voelkel, N.F. Am. J. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Endothelial injury from a circulating mediator following rat liver ischemia. Tan, S., McAdams, M., Royall, J., Freeman, B.A., Parks, D.A. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Molecular chaperones protect catalase against thermal stress. Hook, D.W., Harding, J.J. Eur. J. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Kinetic and circular dichroism studies of enzymes adsorbed on ultrafine silica particles. Kondo, A., Murakami, F., Kawagoe, M., Higashitani, K. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Diminishing of aggregation for bovine liver catalase through acidic residues modification. Hashemnia, S., Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A., Ghourchian, H., Ahmad, F., Hakimelahi, G.H., Saboury, A.A. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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