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Chemical Compound Review

AC1NSDXK     1-methyl-2-nitro-1-nitroso- guanidine

Synonyms: CHEMBL440287, CHEBI:21759
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Disease relevance of Methylnitronitrosoguanidine


Psychiatry related information on Methylnitronitrosoguanidine

  • The putative DNA repair defect in Alzheimer's disease should be investigated by methods other than the alkaline elution technique which measures only a small fraction of the damage induced by an alkylating chemical such as MNNG [6].
  • In contrast, populations of tumorigenic cells were not rendered more biologically aggressive after treatment with either MMS or MNNG; i.e., the latency period for tumor development was not accelerated and the tumors did not exhibit metastatic potential [7].

High impact information on Methylnitronitrosoguanidine


Chemical compound and disease context of Methylnitronitrosoguanidine


Biological context of Methylnitronitrosoguanidine


Anatomical context of Methylnitronitrosoguanidine


Associations of Methylnitronitrosoguanidine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Methylnitronitrosoguanidine

  • These data support a model in which MSH2 and ATR function upstream to regulate two branches of the response pathway to DNA damage caused by MNNG [28].
  • MNNG was found to induce the activation of JNK/SAPK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) [29].
  • In contrast, neither dominant negative MKK6 nor SB203580, which specifically inhibit p38 MAP kinase activation, abrogated the MNNG-induced effect [29].
  • The formation of MNNG-induced mutations is almost abolished in the rad30Delta pol32Delta double mutant of yeast, which lacks the RAD30 gene that encodes Poleta and the Pol32 subunit of DNA polymerase delta (Poldelta) [30].
  • Taken together, our results show that the JNK signaling pathway links external MNNG stimulation and AP1-dependent uPA gene expression, providing the first functional dissection of a transcription-coupled signal transduction pathway for MNNG [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Methylnitronitrosoguanidine

  • Sequential treatment with x-radiation and MNNG, either x-ray 2 months prior to MNNG (group I) or MNNG 2 months prior to x-ray (group III), resulted in a lower incidence of gastric tumors as compared with the incidence after treatment with MNNG alone [31].
  • After 4 weeks, some rats in the MNNG-treated and control groups were given injections of tritiated thymidine and killed 1 hour later [32].
  • The growth of MNNG/HOS xenografts was stimulated by hGH-RH(1-29)NH2 (P < .01) [33].
  • RESULTS: The growth of SK-ES-1 and MNNG/HOS tumors in nude mice was significantly inhibited by MZ-4-71, as measured by a reduction in tumor volume and weight (all P values < .05) [33].
  • To determine whether these transient CS- cells are more sensitive to carcinogenic/mutagenic perturbation, the susceptibility to neoplastic transformation and somatic mutation induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was examined in clonally isolated cell cultures containing various proportions of CS- cells (0.02-4%) [34].


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  2. Human brain tumour cell strains with deficient host-cell reactivation of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-damaged adenovirus 5. Day, R.S., Ziolkowski, C.H. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
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  4. Mismatch repair-dependent G2 checkpoint induced by low doses of SN1 type methylating agents requires the ATR kinase. Stojic, L., Mojas, N., Cejka, P., Di Pietro, M., Ferrari, S., Marra, G., Jiricny, J. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
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  6. Alzheimer's disease fibroblasts have normal repair of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced DNA damage determined by the alkaline elution technique. Kinsella, T.J., Dobson, P.P., Fornace, A.J., Barrett, S.F., Ganges, M.B., Robbins, J.H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1987) [Pubmed]
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  13. Inhibition and reversal by beta-retinoic acid of hyperplasia induced in cultured mouse prostate tissue by 3-methylcholanthrene or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Chopra, D.P., Wilkoff, L.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. Reversal by vitamin A analogues (retinoids) of hyperplasia induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in mouse prostate organ cultures. Chopra, D.P., Wilkoff, L.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Carcinogen-induced mutations in the mouse c-Ha-ras gene provide evidence of multiple pathways for tumor progression. Brown, K., Buchmann, A., Balmain, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Inducible repair of phosphotriesters in Escherichia coli. McCarthy, J.G., Edington, B.V., Schendel, P.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Initial DNA damage and heritable permanent change in pepsinogen isoenzyme pattern in the pyloric mucosae of rats after short-term administration of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Tatematsu, M., Saito, D., Furihata, C., Miyata, Y., Nakatsuka, T., Ito, N., Sugimura, T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. Competency in mismatch repair prohibits clonal expansion of cancer cells treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Carethers, J.M., Hawn, M.T., Chauhan, D.P., Luce, M.C., Marra, G., Koi, M., Boland, C.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
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  20. Sequential histopathology and cell kinetic changes in rat pyloric mucosa during gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Deschner, E.E., Tamura, K., Bralow, S.P. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1979) [Pubmed]
  21. Acute effects of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine on canine gastric mucosa. Kuo, Y.J., Chou, A.C., Shanbour, L.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. Tumor-specific antigens on rat liver cells transformed in vitro by chemical carcinogens. Yokota, T., Sizaret, P., Martel, N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
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  27. Effects of butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, and NaCl on gastric carcinogenesis initiated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in F344 rats. Shirai, T., Fukushima, S., Ohshima, M., Masuda, A., Ito, N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. MSH2 and ATR form a signaling module and regulate two branches of the damage response to DNA methylation. Wang, Y., Qin, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. The cJun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway mediates induction of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) by the alkylating agent MNNG. Parra, M., Lluís, F., Miralles, F., Caelles, C., Muñoz-Cánoves, P. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Replication past O(6)-methylguanine by yeast and human DNA polymerase eta. Haracska, L., Prakash, S., Prakash, L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Relationship between gastric tumorigenesis and intestinal metaplasia in rats given x-radiation and/or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Watanabe, H., Ito, A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Effect of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine on gastroduodenal epithelial proliferation in Wistar/Lewis rats. Quimby, G.F., Eastwood, G.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1981) [Pubmed]
  33. Inhibition of growth of human osteosarcomas by antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone. Pinski, J., Schally, A.V., Groot, K., Halmos, G., Szepeshazi, K., Zarandi, M., Armatis, P. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. A contact-insensitive subpopulation in Syrian hamster cell cultures with a greater susceptibility to chemically induced neoplastic transformation. Nakano, S., Ueo, H., Bruce, S.A., Ts'o, P.O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
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