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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Regulation of hepatic glucokinase gene expression. Role of carbohydrates, and glucocorticoid and thyroid hormones.

The present study investigates the effect of thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones on the induction of hepatic glucokinase mRNA activity, enzyme synthesis and activity in starved/refed adrenalectomized, thyroidectomized and intact rats. In intact rats glucose refeeding resulted within 2 h in a more than tenfold increase in the functional messenger, followed by a corresponding increase in glucokinase synthesis and, a little later, in enzyme activity. Glucokinase mRNA and synthesis remained elevated at this level for about further 6 h. Then the mRNA activity and enzyme synthesis declined considerably to a new steady state (a factor of about 4 above the starvation level) within a further 8 h, while enzyme activity remained constantly elevated. The half-life of glucokinase mRNA, as determined after administration of cordycepin, was identical during the different refeeding periods. Thus the overshoot phenomenon, provoked by carbohydrate refeeding, in glucokinase mRNA is not explained by alteration of the glucokinase mRNA decay rates. In thyroidectomized or adrenalectomized rats, glucose refeeding resulted in only a small increase in glucokinase mRNA, synthesis and activity. Application of thyroid hormones in thyroidectomized rats, refed a carbohydrate-rich diet, enhanced the specific mRNA considerably within 8-10 h, while it took 20-24 h to enhance glucokinase mRNA by glucocorticoids in adrenalectomized rats refed a carbohydrate-rich diet. The decay in translatable glucokinase mRNA, as determined after administration of cordycepin, was identical in the hypothyroid and euthyroid fed state, while adrenalectomy resulted in a significant decrease in the specific mRNA half-life. We conclude that refeeding a carbohydrate-rich diet rapidly stimulates glucokinase mRNA regeneration showing overshoot kinetics. 3,3',5-Triiodothyronine in its physiological concentration significantly enhances the response in glucokinase mRNA at the nuclear level, while glucocorticoids in their physiological concentration predominantly stabilize the translatable glucokinase mRNA.[1]


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