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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Retinoid toxicity.

The long-term effects of N-ethylretinamide (NER) on the haematology of the rat, and the dose-related effects of retinoids on lymphoid organs of the mouse and rat were investigated. Retinoid-induced long-bone changes were used to develop a method for quantifying skeletal effects. This technique was used to investigate the activity of five retinamides in inducing long-bone changes in the rat. The ability of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds (NSAICs) to prevent retinoid-induced skeletal effects was examined, and preliminary investigations made into the mechanisms of retinoid-induced long-bone remodelling. NER-fed rats had reduced red blood cell counts and fibrinogen values. Retinoids caused dose-related proliferation of the spleen and lymph nodes in the mouse and to a lesser extent in the rat. They induced dose-related reductions in femoral diaphysis and medullary cavity diameters in both rats and mice. Aspirin prevented NER-induced changes of rat long bones, but subsequent studies indicated this effect may be closely dependent on the dose level of both the retinoid and NSAIC administered. Retinoids induce rapid long-bone remodelling in the rat which tends to revert on feeding a control diet, but remodelling processes are different in the young growing rat and the mature animal.[1]


  1. Retinoid toxicity. Turton, J.A., Hicks, R.M., Gwynne, J., Hunt, R., Hawkey, C.M. Ciba Found. Symp. (1985) [Pubmed]
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