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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Constant rate exposure of pregnant hamsters to arsenate during early gestation.

We have examined the teratogenic and embryotoxic effects of constant-rate exposure of pregnant hamsters to arsenate by means of subcutaneous implants of osmotic minipumps. Different total exposure regimens were established by varying the duration of minipump implants and by varying the concentration of arsenate in the minipumps. Dams were killed on Day 13 of pregnancy, 5 days after the critical stage of organogenesis. Numbers of resorptions, dead fetuses, and living fetuses were obtained. Fetal weights, crown-rump lengths, and the incidence of malformations were recorded. Control animals were treated identically with minipumps containing demineralized water. The percentage of malformations per litter, a direct measure of teratogenesis, was dependent only upon the concentration of arsenate in the minipumps. The minimum teratogenic response was achieved with a dose of 70 mumol/kg dam/24 hr during the critical stages of organogenesis. The embryotoxic (fetotoxic) indicators, fetal weight and crown-rump length, decreased with increases in exposure time and with increased concentrations of arsenate. The resorption rate also depended directly upon duration of exposure and concentration of arsenate in the minipump.[1]


  1. Constant rate exposure of pregnant hamsters to arsenate during early gestation. Ferm, V.H., Hanlon, D.P. Environmental research. (1985) [Pubmed]
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