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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Fetus


Psychiatry related information on Fetus


High impact information on Fetus


Chemical compound and disease context of Fetus

  • Here, we report that chronic administration in rats of low doses of the widely used drug cyclophosphamide had minimal effects on the male reproductive system and fertility, but resulted in malformations and retardation of growth in the surviving fetuses and a high frequency of fetal death [15].
  • Of the surviving female offspring of mice treated with low doses of 6-mercaptopurine during pregnancy, despite normal body weight and general appearance, many were either sterile or, if they became pregnant, had smaller litters and more dead fetuses as compared to offspring of mothers that had not received the drug [16].
  • This study demonstrates prolonged suppression of the fetal adrenal gland with dexamethasone and suggests it might prevent abnormal masculinization in fetuses with severe congenital adrenal hyperplasia [17].
  • One of the most distinctive mutant phenotypic traits is severe prenatal hypoglycemia, with average (+/-SEM) plasma glucose concentrations of 0.35 +/- 0.14 mM in late fetuses compared to 3.47 +/- 0.69 mM in normal littermates [18].
  • It also was demonstrated that fetal hypoxemia produced a significant increase in fetal plasma concentrations of vasopressin associated with an antidiuresis in all but one near-term fetus and in 50% of the young fetuses, suggesting that the ability of the fetal kidney to reabsorb free water is more developed in near-term fetuses [19].

Biological context of Fetus


Anatomical context of Fetus


Associations of Fetus with chemical compounds

  • Maternal free thyroxine levels were closely correlated with cord levels in both groups, being essentially identical in Group 2 but slightly lower in fetuses than in mothers in Group 1 [30].
  • In all seven fetuses affected, ductal constriction had resolved by the time they were restudied 24 hours after the discontinuation of indomethacin [31].
  • However, our data did not rule out an effect of androgen exposure on female fetuses [32].
  • Among the fetuses or infants of the women with periconceptional use of folic acid, the rates were 1.0 per 1000 in the northern region and 0.6 per 1000 in the southern region [1].
  • Dopamine cells collected from the ventral mesencephalon of the cloned fetuses 42 to 50 days post-conception survived transplantation into immunosuppressed parkinsonian rats and cells from cloned and wild-type embryos improved motor performance [33].

Gene context of Fetus

  • Here we report that fibroblasts derived from c-jun-/- mouse fetuses exhibit a severe proliferation defect and undergo a prolonged crisis before spontaneous immortalization [34].
  • Pthr1-null fetuses had plasma PTHrP levels 11-fold higher than those of their littermates [35].
  • It was recently shown that naturally occurring Mdr1a mutant fetuses of the CF-1 outbred mouse stock have no placental Mdr1a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and that this absence is associated with increased sensitivity to avermectin, a teratogenic pesticide [36].
  • Patients and affected fetuses from 2 families were homozygous for a mutation in the CD3D gene, and patients from the third family were homozygous for a mutation in the CD3E gene [37].
  • RNase protection experiments show that the TN-X transcript is expressed ubiquitously in human fetal tissues, with the greatest expression in the fetal testis and in fetal skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fetus


  1. Prevention of neural-tube defects with folic acid in China. China-U.S. Collaborative Project for Neural Tube Defect Prevention. Berry, R.J., Li, Z., Erickson, J.D., Li, S., Moore, C.A., Wang, H., Mulinare, J., Zhao, P., Wong, L.Y., Gindler, J., Hong, S.X., Correa, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. A survey of zidovudine use in pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sperling, R.S., Stratton, P., O'Sullivan, M.J., Boyer, P., Watts, D.H., Lambert, J.S., Hammill, H., Livingston, E.G., Gloeb, D.J., Minkoff, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Nucleus basalis magnocellularis and hippocampus are the major sites of FMR-1 expression in the human fetal brain. Abitbol, M., Menini, C., Delezoide, A.L., Rhyner, T., Vekemans, M., Mallet, J. Nat. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Unilateral transplantation of human fetal mesencephalic tissue into the caudate nucleus of patients with Parkinson's disease. Spencer, D.D., Robbins, R.J., Naftolin, F., Marek, K.L., Vollmer, T., Leranth, C., Roth, R.H., Price, L.H., Gjedde, A., Bunney, B.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide-dependent cortisol hypersecretion--a new cause of Cushing's syndrome. Lacroix, A., Bolté, E., Tremblay, J., Dupré, J., Poitras, P., Fournier, H., Garon, J., Garrel, D., Bayard, F., Taillefer, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. The role of prostaglandins in masculine differentiation: modulation of prostaglandin levels in the differentiating genital tract of the fetal mouse. Gupta, C. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of Shiga toxin 2 on lethality, fetuses, delivery, and puerperal behavior in pregnant mice. Yoshimura, K., Fujii, J., Tanimoto, A., Yutsudo, T., Kashimura, M., Yoshida, S. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Adaptation of ovine fetal pancreatic insulin secretion to chronic hypoglycaemia and euglycaemic correction. Limesand, S.W., Hay, W.W. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Differential expression of p63 isoforms in female reproductive organs. Kurita, T., Cunha, G.R., Robboy, S.J., Mills, A.A., Medina, R.T. Mech. Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Genetic evidence that oxidative derivatives of retinoic acid are not involved in retinoid signaling during mouse development. Niederreither, K., Abu-Abed, S., Schuhbaur, B., Petkovich, M., Chambon, P., Dollé, P. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency is caused by impaired NF-kappaB signaling. Döffinger, R., Smahi, A., Bessia, C., Geissmann, F., Feinberg, J., Durandy, A., Bodemer, C., Kenwrick, S., Dupuis-Girod, S., Blanche, S., Wood, P., Rabia, S.H., Headon, D.J., Overbeek, P.A., Le Deist, F., Holland, S.M., Belani, K., Kumararatne, D.S., Fischer, A., Shapiro, R., Conley, M.E., Reimund, E., Kalhoff, H., Abinun, M., Munnich, A., Israël, A., Courtois, G., Casanova, J.L. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Mutations in coagulation factors in women with unexplained late fetal loss. Martinelli, I., Taioli, E., Cetin, I., Marinoni, A., Gerosa, S., Villa, M.V., Bozzo, M., Mannucci, P.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Amino-terminal phosphorylation of c-Jun regulates stress-induced apoptosis and cellular proliferation. Behrens, A., Sibilia, M., Wagner, E.F. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. The Hand1 bHLH transcription factor is essential for placentation and cardiac morphogenesis. Riley, P., Anson-Cartwright, L., Cross, J.C. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Paternal cyclophosphamide treatment of rats causes fetal loss and malformations without affecting male fertility. Trasler, J.M., Hales, B.F., Robaire, B. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. 6-Mercaptopurine treatment of pregnant mice: effects on second and third generations. Reimers, T.J., Sluss, P.M. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. Pharmacologic suppression of the fetal adrenal gland in utero. Attempted prevention of abnormal external genital masculinization in suspected congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Evans, M.I., Chrousos, G.P., Mann, D.W., Larsen, J.W., Green, I., McCluskey, J., Loriaux, D.L., Fletcher, J.C., Koons, G., Overpeck, J. JAMA (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Prenatal expression of a lethal genetic defect in carbohydrate metabolism in mice. Tyson, F.L., Essien, F.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Developmental aspects of the renal response to hypoxemia in the lamb fetus. Robillard, J.E., Weitzman, R.E., Burmeister, L., Smith, F.G. Circ. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Diagnostic value of blood sampling in fetuses with growth retardation. Pardi, G., Cetin, I., Marconi, A.M., Lanfranchi, A., Bozzetti, P., Ferrazzi, E., Buscaglia, M., Battaglia, F.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Sonographic identification of second-trimester fetuses with Down's syndrome. Benacerraf, B.R., Gelman, R., Frigoletto, F.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Metabolism of theophylline to caffeine in human fetal liver. Aranda, J.V., Louridas, A.T., Vitullo, B.B., Thom, P., Aldridge, A., Haber, R. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  23. At the innate frontiers between mother and fetus: linking abortion with complement activation. Caucheteux, S.M., Kanellopoulos-Langevin, C., Ojcius, D.M. Immunity (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Transmission electron microscopy of fetal rat brain cells during neoplastic transformation in cell culture. Haugen, A., Laerum, O.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1979) [Pubmed]
  25. Prenatal determination of fetal RhD type by DNA amplification. Bennett, P.R., Le Van Kim, C., Colin, Y., Warwick, R.M., Chérif-Zahar, B., Fisk, N.M., Cartron, J.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. The Wnt-1 (int-1) proto-oncogene is required for development of a large region of the mouse brain. McMahon, A.P., Bradley, A. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Insensitivity to anti-müllerian hormone due to a mutation in the human anti-müllerian hormone receptor. Imbeaud, S., Faure, E., Lamarre, I., Mattéi, M.G., di Clemente, N., Tizard, R., Carré-Eusèbe, D., Belville, C., Tragethon, L., Tonkin, C., Nelson, J., McAuliffe, M., Bidart, J.M., Lababidi, A., Josso, N., Cate, R.L., Picard, J.Y. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Analysis of dystrophin expression after activation of myogenesis in amniocytes, chorionic-villus cells, and fibroblasts. A new method for diagnosing Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. Sancho, S., Mongini, T., Tanji, K., Tapscott, S.J., Walker, W.F., Weintraub, H., Miller, A.D., Miranda, A.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Differential and stage-related expression in embryonic tissues of a new human homoeobox gene. Mavilio, F., Simeone, A., Giampaolo, A., Faiella, A., Zappavigna, V., Acampora, D., Poiana, G., Russo, G., Peschle, C., Boncinelli, E. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Antithyroid drug therapy for Graves' disease during pregnancy. Optimal regimen for fetal thyroid status. Momotani, N., Noh, J., Oyanagi, H., Ishikawa, N., Ito, K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  31. Indomethacin in the treatment of premature labor. Effects on the fetal ductus arteriosus. Moise, K.J., Huhta, J.C., Sharif, D.S., Ou, C.N., Kirshon, B., Wasserstrum, N., Cano, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Fertility rates in female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Mulaikal, R.M., Migeon, C.J., Rock, J.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. Somatic cell cloned transgenic bovine neurons for transplantation in parkinsonian rats. Zawada, W.M., Cibelli, J.B., Choi, P.K., Clarkson, E.D., Golueke, P.J., Witta, S.E., Bell, K.P., Kane, J., Ponce de Leon, F.A., Jerry, D.J., Robl, J.M., Freed, C.R., Stice, S.L. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Control of cell cycle progression by c-Jun is p53 dependent. Schreiber, M., Kolbus, A., Piu, F., Szabowski, A., Möhle-Steinlein, U., Tian, J., Karin, M., Angel, P., Wagner, E.F. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Fetal parathyroids are not required to maintain placental calcium transport. Kovacs, C.S., Manley, N.R., Moseley, J.M., Martin, T.J., Kronenberg, H.M. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Absence or pharmacological blocking of placental P-glycoprotein profoundly increases fetal drug exposure. Smit, J.W., Huisman, M.T., van Tellingen, O., Wiltshire, H.R., Schinkel, A.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Severe combined immunodeficiency caused by deficiency in either the delta or the epsilon subunit of CD3. de Saint Basile, G., Geissmann, F., Flori, E., Uring-Lambert, B., Soudais, C., Cavazzana-Calvo, M., Durandy, A., Jabado, N., Fischer, A., Le Deist, F. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Tenascin-X: a novel extracellular matrix protein encoded by the human XB gene overlapping P450c21B. Bristow, J., Tee, M.K., Gitelman, S.E., Mellon, S.H., Miller, W.L. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  39. Connective tissue origin of the amyloid-related protein SAA. Linder, E., Anders, R.F., Natvig, J.B. J. Exp. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  40. Immunogenicity of guinea pig cells transformed in culture by chemical carcinogens. Ohanian, S.H., McCabe, R.P., Evans, C.H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1981) [Pubmed]
  41. Prognostic implications of fetal echogenic bowel. Slotnick, R.N., Abuhamad, A.Z. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  42. Risks of orofacial clefts in children born to women using multivitamins containing folic acid periconceptionally. Shaw, G.M., Lammer, E.J., Wasserman, C.R., O'Malley, C.D., Tolarova, M.M. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  43. Human laminin M chain (merosin): complete primary structure, chromosomal assignment, and expression of the M and A chain in human fetal tissues. Vuolteenaho, R., Nissinen, M., Sainio, K., Byers, M., Eddy, R., Hirvonen, H., Shows, T.B., Sariola, H., Engvall, E., Tryggvason, K. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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