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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Endocrine studies in testicular tumor patients with and without gynecomastia: a report of 45 cases.

Prolactin ( PRL), human placental lactogen (hPL), the beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (betahCG), testosterone ( T), estrone (E1), and estradiol (E2) were measured in blood samples from 45 patients with testicular tumors, 27 of whom had gynecomastia at some stage of their disease. Forty-two of the 45 patients had at least one abnormal hormone level. The most common abnormality was that of plasma estrone: it was elevated in 32 out of 42 (76%) patients in whom it was measured, suggesting a useful role for E1 as a testicular tumor marker. Prognosis was notably worse in patients with embryonal carcinoma, teratocarcinoma, and choriocarcinoma, in those with gynecomastia and, particularly, galactorrhea. Such patients also had the highest incidence of hormonal abnormalities as well as the most extreme absolute values. Hormonal mechanisms were implicated in the development of gynecomastia and galactorrhea. Prolactin, betahCG, E1, and E2 levels in all permutations correlated significantly among patients with gynecomastia, but not among those without, while estrogen to testosterone ratios were elevated in patients with galactorrhea.[1]


  1. Endocrine studies in testicular tumor patients with and without gynecomastia: a report of 45 cases. Stepanas, A.V., Samaan, N.A., Schultz, P.N., Holoye, P.Y. Cancer (1978) [Pubmed]
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