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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Direct measurement of lactose/proton symport in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles: further evidence for the involvement of histidine residue(s).

Addition of lactose to Escherichia coli ML 308-225 membrane vesicles under nonenergized conditions induces transient alkalinization of the medium, and the initial rate of proton influx is stimulated by valinomycin and abolished by nigericin or carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. A functional lac y gene product is absolutely required as the effect is not observed in ML 308-225 vesicles treated with N-ethylmaleimide nor with vesicles from uninduced Escherichia coli ML 30. Furthermore, the magnitude of the phenomenon is enhanced about 3-fold in vesicles from Escherichia coli T206, which contain amplified levels of the lac carrier protein. Kinetic parameters for lactose-induced proton influx are the same as those determined for lactose-facilitated diffusion, and quantitative comparison of the initial rates of the two fluxes indicates that the stoichiometry between protons and lactose is 1:1. Treatment of ML 308-225 vesicles with diethyl pyrocarbonate causes inactivation of lactose-induced proton influx. Remarkably, however, treatment with the histidine reagent enhances the rate of lactose-facilitated diffusion in a manner suggesting that the altered lac carrier catalyzes lactose influx without the symport of protons. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that acylation of a histidyl residue(s) in the lac carrier protein dissociates lactose influx from proton influx and indicate that this residue(s) play(s) an important role in the pathway of proton translocation.[1]


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