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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Study of single and multiple dose pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of the antihypertensive effects of labetalol.

This was an open-label, two-phase crossover study of labetalol in 11 patients with mild to moderate hypertension. A two- to four-week outpatient placebo phase was followed by a three-day inpatient placebo period. Patients were then randomly assigned to receive either labetalol, 200 mg, as a single dose and three times a day for three days and, on the final day, another single dose or a similar sequence with 300 mg as the single dose and multiple twice a day treatment. A two-week placebo outpatient period was followed by the second phase of the study in which the treatment regimen was reversed for the two groups. Blood samples for the determination of free and conjugated labetalol plasma levels were collected, and blood pressures and heart rate were recorded sequentially for 24 hours after the first and last dose of labetalol, and during the multiple dose treatment period before and two hours after each dose as well as four times daily with the patient supine and upright. Of the 11 patients analyzed, five were men and six were women, ranging in age from 33 to 62 years. Labetalol (200 mg and 300 mg) was rapidly absorbed with peak concentrations achieved in approximately one hour. The pharmacokinetic data best fit a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with first order absorption. At steady state, the absorption, distribution, and elimination kinetics were similar for both dosage regimens with elimination half life of 7.65 and 7.92 hours for the 200 mg three times a day and 300 mg twice a day regimens, respectively. During the multiple dosing period average steady-state plasma drug concentrations were 0.149 mg/ml and 0.145 mg/ml for the 300 mg twice a day and 200 mg three times a day regimens, respectively. Approximately 12 percent of total plasma labetalol was free drug. The balance was conjugated. The first dose of 200 mg or 300 mg of labetalol significantly (p less than 0.01) lowered standing and supine mean blood pressure over a period of eight to 12 hours, respectively, with peak effects occurring at two (standing) and four (supine) hours. A significant reduction (p less than 0.01) in supine mean blood pressure was present 24 hours after the initial dose of 300 mg. At steady state the antihypertensive effects of the 200 mg three times a day and the 300 mg twice a day dosage regimens were similar.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[1]


  1. Study of single and multiple dose pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of the antihypertensive effects of labetalol. Maronde, R.F., Robinson, D., Vlachakis, N.D., Barr, J.W., Chung, M., Zampaglione, N., Medakovic, M. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
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