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Chemical Compound Review

Trandate     2-hydroxy-5-[1-hydroxy-2-(4- phenylbutan-2...

Synonyms: Albetol, Ibidomide, Labetolol, NORMOZIDE, Normodyne, ...
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Disease relevance of Albetol


Psychiatry related information on Albetol


High impact information on Albetol


Chemical compound and disease context of Albetol


Biological context of Albetol

  • Maximal exercise capacity after control of resting blood pressure with labetalol was studied in nine hypertensive men aged 34 to 69 years (average 52 years) [20].
  • The exceptions include: those agents that possess intrinsic sympathomimetic activity and produce little reduction in heart rate and output; and labetalol, an agent that reduces pressure immediately (associated with the cardiac effects) because it possesses alpha- as well as beta-adrenoceptor blocking effects [21].
  • Most beta blockers (including labetalol) reduce renal vascular resistance in patients with uncomplicated hypertension [21].
  • Long-term therapy with oral labetalol, an alpha- and beta-blocking agent, has been shown to effectively lower blood pressure and heart rate without decreasing cardiac output [22].
  • On the basis of this profile, it is proposed that labetalol lowers blood pressure in human subjects by three independent mechanisms: (1) beta blockade, (2) alpha blockade, and (3) direct vasodilatation [23].

Anatomical context of Albetol


Associations of Albetol with other chemical compounds

  • Dilevalol, the R-R optical isomer of labetalol, a nonselective beta-antagonist with vasodilation from selective beta 2 agonism, was administered in sequential multiple bolus intravenous injections of 10 to 100 mg in total doses ranging from 35 to 585 mg (mean dose, 414 mg) to 101 patients with supine diastolic blood pressures above 120 mm Hg [26].
  • Ambulatory monitoring revealed labetalol-treated patients to have significantly greater decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures during daily activity than prazosin-treated patients [19].
  • Treatment with labetalol alone or in combination with furosemide, as well as methyldopa plus furosemide, was associated with significant reductions in supine and standing blood pressure levels [18].
  • In this double-blind study, 20 patients were randomly allocated to receive increasing doses of labetalol (100 to 400 mg three times a day) or hydrochlorothiazide (25 to 50 mg three times a day) over a four-week treatment period [27].
  • The patients' BP and heart rate were evaluated biweekly by trained observers unaware of the treatment status, and drug dosage was titrated (up to 400 mg twice a day of labetalol or 40 mg daily of enalapril) to achieve a standing diastolic BP of less than 90 mm Hg and a decrease of 10 mm Hg from baseline [14].

Gene context of Albetol


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Albetol


  1. Labetalol for hypertension. Valenta, L.J., Kern, J. JAMA (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Labetalol and platelet function in pre-eclampsia. Walker, J.J., Erwin, L., Lang, G., Prentice, C.R., Belch, J.J., McLaren, M., Forbes, C.D., Calder, A.A. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Apparent anaphylaxis from labetalol. Ferree, C.E. Ann. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Hemodynamic effects of labetalol, an alpha and beta adrenergic blocking agent, in hypertensive subjects. Mehta, J., Cohn, J.N. Circulation (1977) [Pubmed]
  5. Antiarrhythmic action of labetalol and its effect on adenine metabolism in the isolated rat heart. Lubbe, W.F., Nguyen, T., Edwards, M.F. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Labetalol in the control of cardiovascular responses to electroconvulsive therapy in high-risk depressed medical patients. Stoudemire, A., Knos, G., Gladson, M., Markwalter, H., Sung, Y.F., Morris, R., Cooper, R. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. The use of labetalol in Japan: results of multicentre clinical trials. Takeda, T., Kaneko, Y., Omae, T., Yoshinaga, K., Masuyama, Y., Nukada, T., Shigiya, R. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Labetalol treatment enhances the attenuation of tobacco withdrawal symptoms by nicotine in abstinent smokers. Sofuoglu, M., Babb, D., Hatsukami, D.K. Nicotine Tob. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Immediate effects of labetalol on central, splanchnic-hepatic, and forearm haemodynamics during pleasant emotional stress in hypertensive patients. Trap-Jensen, J., Clausen, J.P., Hartling, O.J., Svendsen, T.L., Krogsgaard, A.R. Postgraduate medical journal. (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Cimetidine and bioavailability of labetalol. Daneshmend, T.K., Roberts, C.J. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Response of the systemic and pulmonary circulation to alpha- and beta-receptor blockade (labetalol) at rest and during exercise in hypertensive patients. Fagard, R., Amery, A., Reybrouck, T., Lijnen, P., Billiet, L. Circulation (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of beta-blocking agents and angiotensin II on isoproterenol-stimulated renin release from rat kidney slices. Capponi, A.M., Gourjon, M., Vallotton, M.B. Circ. Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  13. Influence of labetalol on cocaine-induced coronary vasoconstriction in humans. Boehrer, J.D., Moliterno, D.J., Willard, J.E., Hillis, L.D., Lange, R.A. Am. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Comparison of labetalol versus enalapril as monotherapy in elderly patients with hypertension: results of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Applegate, W.B., Borhani, N., DeQuattro, V., Kaihlanen, P.M., Oishi, S., Due, D.L., Sirgo, M.A. Am. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Letter: Labetalol and clonidine in severe hypertension. Rosel, E.A., Brown, J.J., Trust, P.M., Lever, A.F., Robertson, J.I. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Intravenous dilevalol. Effects of the R-R optical isomer of labetalol in patients with severe hypertension. Wallin, J.D., Cook, M.E., Clifton, G.G., Blasucci, D.J., Poland, M. Arch. Intern. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Multiclinic comparison of labetalol to metoprolol in treatment of mild to moderate systemic hypertension. Frishman, W.H., Michelson, E.L., Johnson, B.F., Poland, M.P. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Treatment of severe hypertension with labetalol compared with methyldopa and furosemide. Results of a long-term, double-blind, multicenter trial. Wallin, J.D., Wilson, D., Winer, N., Maronde, R.F., Michelson, E.L., Langford, H., Maloy, J., Poland, M. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Comparison of labetalol and prazosin in hypertensive patients using automated ambulatory monitoring. Gray, J.M., Silberman, H.M., Gorwit, J.I. Am. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of labetalol on exercise tolerance and double product in mild to moderate essential hypertension. Feit, A., Holtzman, R., Cohen, M., el-Sherif, N. Am. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Pharmacologic and physiologic considerations of adrenoceptor blockade. Frohlich, E.D., Dunn, F.G., Messerli, F.H. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Systemic, pulmonary, and coronary hemodynamic effects of labetalol in hypertensive subjects. Mehta, J., Feldman, R.L., Marx, J.D., Kelly, G.A. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Pharmacology of labetalol in experimental animals. Baum, T., Sybertz, E.J. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Acute effects of oral labetalol on myocardial conduction after coronary artery bypass grafting. Reder, R.F., Mindich, B., Halperin, J., Litwak, R.S., Kupersmith, J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1984) [Pubmed]
  25. A comparison of glyceryl trinitrate and labetalol as hypotensive agents in microsurgery of the middle ear. Eltringham, R.J., Young, P.N., Littlejohns, P.A., Robinson, J.M. Eur. Heart J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Dilevalol in severe hypertension. A multicenter trial of bolus intravenous dosing. Wallin, J.D., Cook, M.E., Fletcher, E., Holtzman, J.L., Winer, N., Gavras, H., Grim, C.E., Ramanathan, K.B., Vidt, D.G., Johnson, B.F. Arch. Intern. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Comparison of the effects of labetalol and hydrochlorothiazide on the ventilatory function of hypertensive patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Light, R.W., Chetty, K.G., Stansbury, D.W. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Endotoxin desensitization of human mononuclear cells after cardiopulmonary bypass: role of humoral factors. Grundmann, U., Rensing, H., Adams, H.A., Falk, S., Wendler, O., Ebinger, N., Bauer, M. Anesthesiology (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. The dose dependency of the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist and beta-adrenoceptor partial agonist activity of dilevalol and labetalol in man. Tham, T.C., McKaigue, J.P., Guy, S., Shanks, R.G., Riddell, J.G. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. The effects of labetalol and dilevalol on isolated cardiovascular preparations of the guinea-pig and rat. Doggrell, S.A. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Combined alpha/beta-blockade versus beta 1-selective blockade in essential hypertension in black and white patients. Townsend, R.R., DiPette, D.J., Goodman, R., Blumfield, D., Cronin, R., Gradman, A., Katz, L.A., McCarthy, E.P., Sopko, G. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Intravenous labetalol in acute aortic dissection. Grubb, B.P., Sirio, C., Zelis, R. JAMA (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. Alpha adrenergic-mediated accumulation of calcium in reperfused myocardium. Sharma, A.D., Saffitz, J.E., Lee, B.I., Sobel, B.E., Corr, P.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Study of single and multiple dose pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of the antihypertensive effects of labetalol. Maronde, R.F., Robinson, D., Vlachakis, N.D., Barr, J.W., Chung, M., Zampaglione, N., Medakovic, M. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  35. Monotherapy with labetalol in the treatment of mild hypertension: a double-blind study. Davidov, M.E., Moir, G.D., Poland, M.P., Maloy, J., Medakovic, M. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
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