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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effect of BCG immunotherapy on N-nitroso-N-methylurea-induced carcinogenesis of guinea pig colon.

A total of 480 guinea pigs each received twice weekly intrarectal instillations of 1 mg N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) during 14-35 weeks (total dose NMU, 28-70 mg) to induce colon neoplasms. At 24, 28, or 35 weeks after the start of NMU instillation, the distal colon was exposed by a ventral laparotomy and suspected neoplastic lesions were treated by one of four methods: A, intratumoral instillation of an emulsion of killed BCG cell walls attached to oil droplets; B, intratumoral instillation of a control emulsion of killed BCG cell walls in an aqueous phase rather than lipid phase; C, surgical excision of the colon lesion with formation of a ventral diverting colostomy; or D, sham operation (no treatment). All guinea pigs were allowed to recover from surgery and were then observed for a period of 1 year for the study of the effects of these treatments on NMU-induced colon neoplasms. Colon neoplasms were produced in 76% of all sham-operated control guinea pigs, and the frequency of such neoplasms was dependent on the total dose of NMU. Most neoplasms were adenocarcinomas with invasion of the bowel wall but only approximately 5% of them metastasized. Treatment with BCG failed to alter the course of NMU-induced colon carcinogenesis, as determined by the frequency of colon neoplasia, the number, the gross, or microscopic characteristics of colon neoplasms, or the rate of survival.[1]


  1. Effect of BCG immunotherapy on N-nitroso-N-methylurea-induced carcinogenesis of guinea pig colon. Cockerell, G.L., O'Donnell, R.W., Kriedemann, W.L., Amato, D.A., Turnbull, B.W. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
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