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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The estrogenic effects of clomiphene during the neonatal period in the rat.

The ability of clomiphene and its isomers to cause estrogenic responses during the neonatal period in the rat was examined. Rats were injected s.c. with clomiphene (CL), zuclomiphene (ZUC) or enclomiphene (ENC) on days 1,3, and 5 of life and the stimulation of the reproductive tract and estrogen receptor binding was observed. Uterine weight and DNA content were increased significantly by day 7 in animals treated with clomiphene or zuclomiphene. Uterine epithelial hypertrophy was present in all groups by day 10 and hyperplasia was present in the animals treated with ZUC and CL. The time of vaginal opening was greatly accelerated in all drug treated groups with the earliest day of opening occurring on day 7. Ovarian hemorrhage and blood in the periovarian sac occurred between days 12-14 and continued to be present through day 25. Drug treatment caused the estrogen receptor to accumulate in the nuclear fraction of the uterus and to be depleted from the cytosol fraction. We conclude that clomiphene administered to neonatal rats causes estrogenic stimulation of the reproductive tract in a fashion similar to other estrogens. This stimulation may account for the reproductive tract abnormalities which develop in rats treated with those drugs during the neonatal period.[1]


  1. The estrogenic effects of clomiphene during the neonatal period in the rat. Clark, J.H., Guthrie, S.C. J. Steroid Biochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
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