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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A coagulation pathway on bovine aortic segments leading to generation of Factor Xa and thrombin.

Previous studies have demonstrated the binding of Factors IX and IXa to cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. The present study examines the interaction of Factors IX, IXa, and Xa with the luminal surface of calf aortas, shown by microscopic examination to have a continuous layer of endothelium. Radioimmunoassay of Factor IX showed that 74 fmol/10(6) cells of Factor IX could be eluted from freshly prepared aortic segments. Binding of 3H-Factors IX and IXa to aortic segments was saturable, and comparable to binding in previous studies using cultured endothelial cells. Preincubation of aortic segments with 3H-Factor IXa and von Willebrand factor (VWF)/Factor VIII, followed by washing and addition of Factor X, resulted in formation of Factor Xa. The addition of prothrombin to these activation mixtures resulted in formation of thrombin. Exogenous phospholipid and Factor V were not required for Factor X and prothrombin activation on the intact native endothelium. Incubation of 125I-Factor Xa with the vessel segments resulted in most of the tracer being complexed with antithrombin III originally present on the aortic segment (3.8 pmol antithrombin III/10(6) cells). The Factor Xa-antithrombin III complex was observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis exclusively in the supernatants. 125I-Factor Xa not complexed with antithrombin III bound specifically to the vessel segment. The time course of binding was biphasic, consisting of an initial more rapid reversible phase followed by a slower irreversible phase. The latter phase correlated with the formation of a covalent complex (Mr, 76,000) between 125I-Factor Xa and a vessel-localized protein presumably distinct from antithrombin III. The activation of prothrombin by vessel-bound Factor Xa was inhibited by anti-bovine Factor V IgG, suggesting that there is interaction of Factor Xa with a Factor V-like molecule provided by the endothelial cell surface. Addition of antibody to antithrombin III prevented formation of Factor Xa-antithrombin III and thrombin-antithrombin III complexes in the supernatant and increased apparent thrombin activity 30-50-fold. These studies demonstrate that freshly obtained vessels with a continuous layer of native endothelium can support activation of Factor X and prothrombin: vessel-bound Factor IXa can activate Factor X in the presence of VWF/Factor VIII. Factor Xa can also bind to the vessel and participate in the activation of prothrombin. The apparent efficiency of prothrombin activation, however, is dampened by the presence of functional antithrombin III on the vessel wall.[1]


  1. A coagulation pathway on bovine aortic segments leading to generation of Factor Xa and thrombin. Stern, D.M., Nawroth, P.P., Kisiel, W., Handley, D., Drillings, M., Bartos, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
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