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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The activity of the sympathetic nervous system following severe head injury.

The activity of the sympathetic nervous system during the course of severe closed head injury has been evaluated in 15 patients by measuring plasma levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine. With the onset of the transition stage from midbrain syndrome to the apallic syndrome the plasma levels mainly of norepinephrine started to increase and remained high during the further course of the disease. During the remission from the apallic syndrome the elevated norepinephrine levels started to decline. The data indicate that a longlasting overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system is a characteristic feature in the course of severe head injury. As a rational therapy to protect the peripheral tissues against the consequences of a longlasting sympathetic overactivity we suggest the use of beta-adrenergic blocking agents and adrenergic neuron blocking drugs.[1]


  1. The activity of the sympathetic nervous system following severe head injury. Hörtnagl, H., Hammerle, A.F., Hackl, J.M., Brücke, T., Rumpl, E., Hörtnagl, H. Intensive care medicine. (1980) [Pubmed]
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