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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Acute and embryo-larval toxicity of phenolic compounds to aquatic biota.

Because of the prevalence of phenolic compounds in various types of effluents, both acute and embryo-larval bioassays were performed on eight phenolic compounds with rainbow trout, fathead minnows and Daphnia pulicaria. In flow-through bioassays, the 96-hr LC50 values for rainbow trout and fathead minnows ranged from < 0.1 mg/L for hydroquinone to > 100 mg/L for resorcinol. Daphnia pulicaria was consistently the least sensitive species tested as measured in 48-hr bioassays, while fathead minnows and rainbow trout varied in their relative sensitivity to phenolics as measured in 96-hr tests. Fathead minnows were more sensitive to phenol at 25 degrees C than at 14 degrees C. In embryo-larval bioassays with phenol, fathead minnow growth was significantly reduced by 2.5 mg/L phenol, while rainbow trout growth was significantly reduced by 0.20 mg/L phenol. For both species the embryo-larval effects concentration was 1.1% of the 96-hr LC50. Another embryo-larval bioassay was attempted with p-benzoquinone, a highly toxic phenolic compound found in fossil fuel processing wastewaters, which was discontinued because the compound was rapidly degraded chemically or biologically in the headtank and aquaria.[1]


  1. Acute and embryo-larval toxicity of phenolic compounds to aquatic biota. DeGraeve, G.M., Geiger, D.L., Meyer, J.S., Bergman, H.L. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1980) [Pubmed]
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