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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

L-Leucine-induced secretion of glucagon and insulin, and the "off-response" to L-leucine in vitro. I. Characterization of the dynamics of secretion.

The effects of L-leucine, D-leucine, and L-isoleucine upon the secretion of glucagon and insulin were investigated using the isolated, perfused rat pancreas. All experiments were conducted in the presence of 5.6 mM D-glucose. Ten-minute perfusions of 2, 5, and 10 mM L-leucine induced the release of glucagon and insulin in a dose-related manner. The removal of L-leucine was followed by renewed release of insulin ("off-response") but not of glucagon. The magnitude of the off-response was greater when L-leucine was perfused over longer periods. L-Isoleucine evoked the release of both glucagon and insulin. When L-leucine was administered during perfusion of L-isoleucine, L-leucine-induced release of glucagon was inhibited, that of insulin was augmented, and the insulin off-response prevailed. When the perfusion of L-leucine immediately preceded that of L-isoleucine, L-isoleucine-induced release of glucagon was abolished and that of insulin was augmented. D-Leucine evoked the release of glucagon but not of insulin, and no off-response occurred. When the perfusion of D-leucine followed that of L-leucine, D-leucine-induced glucagon release was inhibited; the insulin off-response to L-leucine was not altered. We reached the following conclusions. 1) Glucagon release induced by L-leucine, D-leucine, or L-isoleucine is likely to be related to the occupancy by these analogous amino acids of transport and/or receptor sites which they share. 2) The insulin off response to L-leucine seems to be evoked by events which take place during the period of administration of L-leucine; these events are not likely to be the release of insulin that occurs during perfusion of L-leucine or the transport of L-leucine into or out of the beta cell. 3) Structurally or chemically similar compounds which are secretagogues both for glucagon and insulin affect the release of these hormones in different ways; these differences are likely to be due to dissimilar mechanisms governing the secretion of the two hormones.[1]


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