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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Costimulation requirement for AP-1 and NF-kappa B transcription factor activation in T cells.

The transcriptional activity of the IL-2 promoter requires T-cell costimulation delivered by the TCR and the auxiliary receptor CD28. Several transcription factors participate in IL-2 promoter activation, among which are AP-1-like factors and NF-kappa B. Protein phosphorylation has an important role in the regulation of these two factors: (1) it induces the transactivating capacity of the AP-1 protein c-Jun; and (2) it is involved in the release of the cytoplasmic inhibitor, I kappa B, from NF-kappa B, allowing translocation of the latter into the nucleus. We have recently shown that both phosphorylation processes require T-cell costimulation. Furthermore, in activated T cells, the kinetics of the two phosphorylation events are essentially similar. According to our results, however, the kinases responsible for the two processes are distinct entities. Whereas TPCK inhibits phosphorylation of I kappa B and, consequently, activation of NF-kappa B, it markedly enhances the activity of JNK, the MAP kinase-related kinase that phosphorylates the transactivation domain of c-Jun. We, therefore, propose the activation scheme presented in FIGURE 3 for T-cell costimulation. Costimulation results in the activation of a signaling pathway that leads to the simultaneous induction of the two transcription factors, AP-1 and NF-kappa B. Integration of the signals generated by TCR and CD28 engagement occurs along this pathway, which then bifurcates to induce I kappa B phosphorylation and NF-kappa B activation on the one hand, and JNK activation and c-Jun phosphorylation on the other. We are currently engaged in defining where the two signals integrate along the AP-1/NF-kappa B pathway.[1]


  1. Costimulation requirement for AP-1 and NF-kappa B transcription factor activation in T cells. Jung, S., Yaron, A., Alkalay, I., Hatzubai, A., Avraham, A., Ben-Neriah, Y. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
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