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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Indirect immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy distribution of eight epidermal-dermal junction epitopes in the pig and in isolated perfused skin treated with bis (2-chloroethyl) sulfide.

Sulfur mustard (bis [2-chloroethyl] sulfide, HD) is a potent cutaneous vesicant that causes gross blisters by separation of the epidermal-dermal junction (EDJ). The EDJ of the skin is a highly specialized and complex structure composed of several components and plays a major role in the integrity of the skin. The isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF) was dosed with 0.2 mg/ml (n = 4), 5.0 mg/ml (n = 4), and 10.0 mg/ml (n = 5) HD or ethanol (n = 4) for 8 hr (dose-response study) and 10.0 mg/ml HD or ethanol for 1, 3, 5, and 8 hr (n = 4/treatment) (time-response study). Successful EDJ mapping was carried out in normal pig skin (NPS), ethanol-treated IPPSFs, and HD-treated IPPSFs using the following antibodies: laminin, type IV collagen, fibronectin, GB3 (Nicein), bullous pemphigoid (BP), and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA). Two mouse anti-human monoclonal antibodies, L3d and 19-DEJ-1 (Uncein), did not cross-react with the EDJ of the pig. Antibody staining in NPS, ranging from very intense for laminin and type IV collagen to weak for fibronectin, was generally more discrete than in the IPPSF. No differences in staining were noted between the ethanol and nonblistered areas of the HD-treated IPPSFs. In HD-blistered areas, BP stained only the epidermal hemidesmosomes, and laminin, fibronectin, and GB3 stained primarily the dermis with fragments attached to the basal pole of the stratum base cells, while type IV collagen and EBA stained only the dermis. Mapping of these epitopes determined that the precise plane of EDJ separation in the HD-treated skin occurred beneath the hemidesmosomes within the upper portion of the lamina lucida. The conservation of human epitopes in the EDJ of the pig further emphasizes the similarities between human skin and pig skin. Therefore, pig skin and the IPPSF may be used to study HD-induced vesication and blistering diseases.[1]


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