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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Dermis

  • BACKGROUND: Patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) show disorganised collagen and elastin of the dermis [1].
  • By immunostaining cryostat sections of skin, CD28 was found to be expressed on virtually all lymphocytes in the epidermis and dermis of both skin diseases [2].
  • Increased IP-10 expression was not detected in any of 4 patients with B-cell lymphoma involving the dermis [3].
  • In contrast, biopsies of melanoma showed strong expression of HDGF throughout the tumor, including cells located deeply within dermis [4].
  • As soon as 1 week after exposure to this carcinogen, malignant cells were present in the treated skin, and after 4 weeks, macroscopic tumors of infiltrating squamous carcinoma cells positive for Type IV collagenase and/or rasHa p21 had dissolved areas of the epidermal basement membrane and colonized the dermis [5].

Psychiatry related information on Dermis


High impact information on Dermis

  • Loss of tight association between epidermis and dermis underlies several blistering disorders and is frequently caused by impaired function of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins [7].
  • These novel findings emphasize the molecular heterogeneity of this group of genodermatoses, and attest to the importance of BPAG2 in maintaining adhesion between the epidermis and the dermis [8].
  • FMR-1 was not detected in dermis and cardiac muscle except under pathological conditions [9].
  • TNF-alpha was extensively induced in the epidermis, but not the dermis, in TPA-treated wild-type skin, indicating that dermal inflammation is controlled by keratinocyte TNF-alpha production [10].
  • LTR-SHH human skin consistently displays the abnormal specific histologic features seen in BCCs, including downgrowth of epithelial buds into the dermis, basal cell palisading and separation of epidermis from the underlying dermis [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Dermis

  • Acanthosis nigricans lesions exhibited prominent deposits of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) consisting mostly of hyaluronic acid in the papillary dermis [12].
  • Interestingly, and consistent with the increased expression of stem cell factor in lesional dermatofibroma dermis, toluidine blue staining in the dermis revealed a 5-fold increase in the number of mast cells, an indication of their longevity or accumulation induced by stem cell factor [13].
  • Granular deposits of IgA in radioactively labeled thin slices of papillary dermis from 4-mm punch biopsies of clinically normal skin from patients with dermatitis herpetiformis were solubilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or peptic digestion at pH 4 [14].
  • Technical improvements for the assay are 2-fold: (1) skin samples were frozen in vivo before biopsy and local injection of any anesthetic was avoided to overcome ischemia effect which could lower cyclic GMP artificially; (2) epidermis was microdissected to avoid contamination of dermis and keratin layers [15].
  • Finally, clofibrate treatment also reduced ear thickness and weight in oxazalone-induced allergic dermatitis, a change that was accompanied by a reduction in inflammatory cells in the dermis and a decrease in tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1alpha levels in the oxazalone-treated epidermis [16].

Biological context of Dermis


Anatomical context of Dermis


Associations of Dermis with chemical compounds

  • Three of the integrin ligands, fibronectin, type IV collagen, and laminin, remained largely confined to the basement membrane zone and dermis [27].
  • To ascertain that aging indeed decreased the capacity of human skin to produce vitamin D3, some of the skin samples were exposed to ultraviolet radiation and the content of previtamin D3 was determined in the epidermis and dermis [28].
  • Nevertheless, the constituent chains of collagens extracted from dermis, i.e., alpha 1(I), alpha 2(I), alpha 1(III), alpha 1(V), and alpha 2(V), chromatographed on carboxymethyl cellulose as though they possessed substantially lower overall positive charge than the homologous chains of normal tissues [29].
  • Neutrophil infiltration of the dermis, deposition of IgA at the dermal-epidermal junction, and a complete reversal of the blistering phenomenon with the administration of a gluten-free diet with or without dapsone were observed [30].
  • In these guinea pigs, demethylchlortetracycline and ultraviolet-A induced a maximal response of 0.75 +/- 0.5, which was associated histologically with 1.2 +/- 0.5% neutrophils in the dermis [31].

Gene context of Dermis

  • Human MIP-1 alpha elicited no response in canine dermis, whereas monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 caused mild perivascular cuffing with monocytes [32].
  • Compared with littermates, Tgs had a >90% decrease in epidermal LCs yet increased numbers within the dermis suggestive of enhanced emigration of CD40-activated LCs [33].
  • Thus, type VII collagen is abundantly present in SSc patients' dermis, a location not characteristic of its normal distribution, and its aberrant expression may relate to the presence of TGF-beta in the same topographic distribution [34].
  • MMP-1 degrades collagen, which accounts for at least 70% of the dry weight of dermis [35].
  • These CD11c(+) cells, which are evident in both epidermis and dermis, are the sites for the expression of two mediators of inflammation, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-alpha in diseased skin [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Dermis


  1. Skin involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Kolde, G., Bachus, R., Ludolph, A.C. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. T lymphocytes in skin lesions of psoriasis and mycosis fungoides express B7-1: a ligand for CD28. Nickoloff, B.J., Nestle, F.O., Zheng, X.G., Turka, L.A. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Cytokine loops involving interferon-gamma and IP-10, a cytokine chemotactic for CD4+ lymphocytes: an explanation for the epidermotropism of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma? Sarris, A.H., Esgleyes-Ribot, T., Crow, M., Broxmeyer, H.E., Karasavvas, N., Pugh, W., Grossman, D., Deisseroth, A., Duvic, M. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Functional proteomic analysis of melanoma progression. Bernard, K., Litman, E., Fitzpatrick, J.L., Shellman, Y.G., Argast, G., Polvinen, K., Everett, A.D., Fukasawa, K., Norris, D.A., Ahn, N.G., Resing, K.A. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Newt squamous carcinoma proves phylogenetic conservation of tumors as caricatures of tissue renewal. Zilakos, N.P., Tsonis, P.A., Del Rio-Tsonis, K., Parchment, R.E. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Antioxidant defense mechanisms in murine epidermis and dermis and their responses to ultraviolet light. Shindo, Y., Witt, E., Packer, L. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Fras1 deficiency results in cryptophthalmos, renal agenesis and blebbed phenotype in mice. Vrontou, S., Petrou, P., Meyer, B.I., Galanopoulos, V.K., Imai, K., Yanagi, M., Chowdhury, K., Scambler, P.J., Chalepakis, G. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Mutations in the 180-kD bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPAG2), a hemidesmosomal transmembrane collagen (COL17A1), in generalized atrophic benign epidermolysis bullosa. McGrath, J.A., Gatalica, B., Christiano, A.M., Li, K., Owaribe, K., McMillan, J.R., Eady, R.A., Uitto, J. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. The FMR-1 protein is cytoplasmic, most abundant in neurons and appears normal in carriers of a fragile X premutation. Devys, D., Lutz, Y., Rouyer, N., Bellocq, J.P., Mandel, J.L. Nat. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Mice deficient in tumor necrosis factor-alpha are resistant to skin carcinogenesis. Moore, R.J., Owens, D.M., Stamp, G., Arnott, C., Burke, F., East, N., Holdsworth, H., Turner, L., Rollins, B., Pasparakis, M., Kollias, G., Balkwill, F. Nat. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Induction of basal cell carcinoma features in transgenic human skin expressing Sonic Hedgehog. Fan, H., Oro, A.E., Scott, M.P., Khavari, P.A. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Glycosaminoglycan deposition in the acanthosis nigricans lesions of the polycystic ovary syndrome. Wortsman, J., Matsuoka, L.Y., Kupchella, C.E., Gavin, J.R., Dietrich, J.G. Arch. Intern. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. The mechanism of epidermal hyperpigmentation in dermatofibroma is associated with stem cell factor and hepatocyte growth factor expression. Shishido, E., Kadono, S., Manaka, I., Kawashima, M., Imokawa, G. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Dermatitis herpetiformis: biochemical properties of the granular deposits of IgA in papillary dermis. Characterization of SDS-soluble IgA-like material and potentially antigen-binding IgA fragments released by pepsin. Egelrud, T., Bäck, O. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Epidermal cyclic GMP is increased in psoriasis lesions. Adachi, K., Aoyagi, T., Nemoto, O., Halprin, K.M., Levine, V. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Topical peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha activators reduce inflammation in irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models. Sheu, M.Y., Fowler, A.J., Kao, J., Schmuth, M., Schoonjans, K., Auwerx, J., Fluhr, J.W., Man, M.Q., Elias, P.M., Feingold, K.R. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Cell-specific expression of alpha 1(I) collagen-hGH minigenes in transgenic mice. Liska, D.J., Reed, M.J., Sage, E.H., Bornstein, P. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Large induction of keratinocyte growth factor expression in the dermis during wound healing. Werner, S., Peters, K.G., Longaker, M.T., Fuller-Pace, F., Banda, M.J., Williams, L.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. The expression of the homeobox gene Msx1 reveals two populations of dermal progenitor cells originating from the somites. Houzelstein, D., Chéraud, Y., Auda-Boucher, G., Fontaine-Pérus, J., Robert, B. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Differential effects of N-cadherin-mediated adhesion on the development of myotomal waves. Cinnamon, Y., Ben-Yair, R., Kalcheim, C. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression and transgenic studies of the mouse agouti gene provide insight into the mechanisms by which mammalian coat color patterns are generated. Millar, S.E., Miller, M.W., Stevens, M.E., Barsh, G.S. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Patterns of expression of murine Vgr-1 and BMP-2a RNA suggest that transforming growth factor-beta-like genes coordinately regulate aspects of embryonic development. Lyons, K.M., Pelton, R.W., Hogan, B.L. Genes Dev. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. CCR7 governs skin dendritic cell migration under inflammatory and steady-state conditions. Ohl, L., Mohaupt, M., Czeloth, N., Hintzen, G., Kiafard, Z., Zwirner, J., Blankenstein, T., Henning, G., Förster, R. Immunity (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Dendritic cells rapidly recruited into epithelial tissues via CCR6/CCL20 are responsible for CD8+ T cell crosspriming in vivo. Le Borgne, M., Etchart, N., Goubier, A., Lira, S.A., Sirard, J.C., van Rooijen, N., Caux, C., Aït-Yahia, S., Vicari, A., Kaiserlian, D., Dubois, B. Immunity (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Treatment of photoaged skin with topical tretinoin increases epidermal-dermal anchoring fibrils. A preliminary report. Woodley, D.T., Zelickson, A.S., Briggaman, R.A., Hamilton, T.A., Weiss, J.S., Ellis, C.N., Voorhees, J.J. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Rapid and specific conversion of precursor interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) to an active IL-1 species by human mast cell chymase. Mizutani, H., Schechter, N., Lazarus, G., Black, R.A., Kupper, T.S. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Aberrant integrin expression during epidermal wound healing and in psoriatic epidermis. Hertle, M.D., Kubler, M.D., Leigh, I.M., Watt, F.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Aging decreases the capacity of human skin to produce vitamin D3. MacLaughlin, J., Holick, M.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. An unusual pattern of peptide-bound lysine metabolism in collagen from an infant with lethal perinatal osteogenesis imperfecta. Petrovic, O.M., Miller, E.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. A new model for dermatitis herpetiformis that uses HLA-DQ8 transgenic NOD mice. Marietta, E., Black, K., Camilleri, M., Krause, P., Rogers, R.S., David, C., Pittelkow, M.R., Murray, J.A. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Role of complement and polymorphonuclear cells in demethylchlortetracycline-induced phototoxicity in guinea pigs. Inhibition by decomplementation in vivo. Lim, H.W., Novotny, H., Gigli, I. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  32. Formation of eosinophilic and monocytic intradermal inflammatory sites in the dog by injection of human RANTES but not human monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, human macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha, or human interleukin 8. Meurer, R., Van Riper, G., Feeney, W., Cunningham, P., Hora, D., Springer, M.S., MacIntyre, D.E., Rosen, H. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Overexpression of CD40 ligand in murine epidermis results in chronic skin inflammation and systemic autoimmunity. Mehling, A., Loser, K., Varga, G., Metze, D., Luger, T.A., Schwarz, T., Grabbe, S., Beissert, S. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Elevated expression of type VII collagen in the skin of patients with systemic sclerosis. Regulation by transforming growth factor-beta. Rudnicka, L., Varga, J., Christiano, A.M., Iozzo, R.V., Jimenez, S.A., Uitto, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 and skin ageing in smokers. Lahmann, C., Bergemann, J., Harrison, G., Young, A.R. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Increase in TNF-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase-expressing dendritic cells in psoriasis and reduction with efalizumab (anti-CD11a). Lowes, M.A., Chamian, F., Abello, M.V., Fuentes-Duculan, J., Lin, S.L., Nussbaum, R., Novitskaya, I., Carbonaro, H., Cardinale, I., Kikuchi, T., Gilleaudeau, P., Sullivan-Whalen, M., Wittkowski, K.M., Papp, K., Garovoy, M., Dummer, W., Steinman, R.M., Krueger, J.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. A potential role for protease nexin 1 overexpression in the pathogenesis of scleroderma. Strehlow, D., Jelaska, A., Strehlow, K., Korn, J.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Evidence that the effector mechanism of skin allograft rejection is antigen-specific. Rosenberg, A.S., Singer, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  39. Alterations in proteoglycan synthesis common to healing wounds and tumors. Yeo, T.K., Brown, L., Dvorak, H.F. Am. J. Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  40. Targeted disruption of TGF-beta/Smad3 signaling modulates skin fibrosis in a mouse model of scleroderma. Lakos, G., Takagawa, S., Chen, S.J., Ferreira, A.M., Han, G., Masuda, K., Wang, X.J., DiPietro, L.A., Varga, J. Am. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  41. Tissue-specific mechanisms control the retention of IL-8 in lungs and skin. Frevert, C.W., Goodman, R.B., Kinsella, M.G., Kajikawa, O., Ballman, K., Clark-Lewis, I., Proudfoot, A.E., Wells, T.N., Martin, T.R. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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