The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Psoriazin     1-chloro-2-(2- chloroethylsulfanyl)ethane

Synonyms: Yperite, Mustardgas, Mustard gas, Sulfur mustard, Mustard, sulfur, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Yperite


Psychiatry related information on Yperite


High impact information on Yperite

  • Sulfur mustard has been shown to be mutagenic in a variety of different species using many different laboratory techniques from fruit flies, microorganisms and mammalian cell cultures (Fox and Scott, 1980) [7].
  • Sulfur mustard is cytotoxic to dermal fibroblasts as well as epidermal keratinocytes [8].
  • Sulfur mustard induces markers of terminal differentiation and apoptosis in keratinocytes via a Ca2+-calmodulin and caspase-dependent pathway [2].
  • The explants were then organ cultured in small Petri dishes for 24 h at 36 degrees C. In the 0.03-1.0% dosage range, a straight-line dose-response relationship occurred between the concentration of SM applied and the number of paranuclear vacuoles seen histologically in the epidermis [1].
  • P2X purinoceptor-mediated phasic (twitch) motor responses of the isolated rat vas deferens to neurogenic or exogenous ATP were rapidly, specifically and irreversibly potentiated by bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (HD 10-100 microM) [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Yperite


Biological context of Yperite


Anatomical context of Yperite


Associations of Yperite with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Yperite


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Yperite


  1. Full-thickness human skin explants for testing the toxicity of topically applied chemicals. Nakamura, M., Rikimaru, T., Yano, T., Moore, K.G., Pula, P.J., Schofield, B.H., Dannenberg, A.M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Sulfur mustard induces markers of terminal differentiation and apoptosis in keratinocytes via a Ca2+-calmodulin and caspase-dependent pathway. Rosenthal, D.S., Simbulan-Rosenthal, C.M., Iyer, S., Spoonde, A., Smith, W., Ray, R., Smulson, M.E. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Ocular injury by mustard gas. Solberg, Y., Alcalay, M., Belkin, M. Survey of ophthalmology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Levels of Cytokine in Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) Fluid in Patients with Pulmonary Fibrosis Due to Sulfur Mustard Gas Inhalation. Emad, A., Emad, Y. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Systemic administration of candidate antivesicants to protect against topically applied sulfur mustard in the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM). Babin, M.C., Ricketts, K., Skvorak, J.P., Gazaway, M., Mitcheltree, L.W., Casillas, R.P. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Methods for testing of compounds with non-lethal effect. Koupilová, M., Herink, J., Bajgar, J. Sborník vědeckých prací Lékařské fakulty Karlovy university v Hradci Králové. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Toxicology and pharmacology of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard. Dacre, J.C., Goldman, M. Pharmacol. Rev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. PARP determines the mode of cell death in skin fibroblasts, but not keratinocytes, exposed to sulfur mustard. Rosenthal, D.S., Simbulan-Rosenthal, C.M., Liu, W.F., Velena, A., Anderson, D., Benton, B., Wang, Z.Q., Smith, W., Ray, R., Smulson, M.E. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide on ATP receptor-mediated responses of the rat vas deferens: possible relationship to cytotoxicity. Lundy, P.M., Sawyer, T.W., Hand, B.T., Frew, R. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Assessment of sulfur mustard interaction with basement membrane components. Zhang, Z., Peters, B.P., Monteiro-Riviere, N.A. Cell Biol. Toxicol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Protection by extracellular glutathione against sulfur mustard induced toxicity in vitro. Amir, A., Chapman, S., Gozes, Y., Sahar, R., Allon, N. Human & experimental toxicology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Characterization of the protective effects of L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) against the toxicity of sulphur mustard in vitro. Sawyer, T.W. Toxicology (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Inhibition of caspase-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition protects airway epithelial cells against mustard-induced apoptosis. Sourdeval, M., Lemaire, C., Deniaud, A., Taysse, L., Daulon, S., Breton, P., Brenner, C., Boisvieux-Ulrich, E., Marano, F. Apoptosis (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Assessment of the role of DNA damage and repair in the survival of primary cultures of rat cutaneous keratinocytes exposed to bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide. Ribeiro, P.L., Mitra, R.S., Bernstein, I.A. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Differential effects of sulphur mustard on S-phase cells of primary fibroblast cultures from Syrian hamsters. Savage, J.R., Breckon, G. Mutat. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Reduced sulfur mustard-induced skin toxicity in cyclooxygenase-2 knockout and celecoxib-treated mice. Wormser, U., Langenbach, R., Peddada, S., Sintov, A., Brodsky, B., Nyska, A. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Possible protein phosphatase inhibition by bis(hydroxyethyl)sulfide, a hydrolysis product of mustard gas. Brimfield, A.A. Toxicol. Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. In vitro dermal intoxication by bis(chloroethyl)sulfide. Effect on secondary epidermization. Gentilhomme, E., Reano, A., Pradel, D., Bergier, J., Schmitt, D., Neveux, Y. Cell Biol. Toxicol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Sulfur mustard induces apoptosis and necrosis in endothelial cells. Dabrowska, M.I., Becks, L.L., Lelli, J.L., Levee, M.G., Hinshaw, D.B. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Stimulation of C32 and G361 melanoma cells using oleoyl acetyl glycerol and its effect on sulphur mustard cytotoxicity. Smith, C.N., Lindsay, C.D. Human & experimental toxicology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Medical aspects of sulphur mustard poisoning. Kehe, K., Szinicz, L. Toxicology (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of lowered temperature on the toxicity of sulphur mustard in vitro and in vivo. Sawyer, T.W., Risk, D. Toxicology (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Chemically crosslinked protein dimers: stability and denaturation effects. Byrne, M.P., Stites, W.E. Protein Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Dominant lethal study of sulfur mustard in male and female rats. Sasser, L.B., Cushing, J.A., Dacre, J.C. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Two-generation reproduction study of sulfur mustard in rats. Sasser, L.B., Cushing, J.A., Dacre, J.C. Reprod. Toxicol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Toxic effects of mechlorethamine on mammalian respiratory mucociliary epithelium in primary culture. Giuliani, I., Boivieux-Ulrich, E., Houcine, O., Guennou, C., Marano, F. Cell Biol. Toxicol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Assessment of the biochemical effects of percutaneous exposure of sulphur mustard in an in vitro human skin system. Lindsay, C.D., Rice, P. Human & experimental toxicology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Sulfur mustard induces the formation of keratin aggregates in human epidermal keratinocytes. Dillman, J.F., McGary, K.L., Schlager, J.J. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Regulation of 1-alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 induced by sulfur mustard (HD) on human skin cells. Arroyo, C.M., Kan, R.K., Burman, D.L., Kahler, D.W., Nelson, M.R., Corun, C.M., Guzman, J.J., Broomfield, C.A. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Acetylcholinesterase biogenesis is impaired in lung cancer tissues. Martínez-Moreno, P., Nieto-Cerón, S., Ruiz-Espejo, F., Torres-Lanzas, J., Tovar-Zapata, I., Martínez-Hernández, P., Vidal, C.J., Cabezas-Herrera, J. Chem. Biol. Interact. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. The role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in human sulfur mustard (HD) toxicology. Arroyo, C.M., Broomfield, C.A., Hackley, B.E. International journal of toxicology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Capillary gas chromatography-atomic emission spectroscopy-mass spectrometry analysis of sulphur mustard and transformation products in a block recovered from the Baltic Sea. Mazurek, M., Witkiewicz, Z., Popiel, S., Sliwakowski, M. Journal of chromatography. A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Detection and measurement of sulfur mustard offgassing from the weanling pig following exposure to saturated sulfur mustard vapor. Logan, T.P., Graham, J.S., Martin, J.L., Zallnick, J.E., Jakubowski, E.M., Braue, E.H. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Wound healing of cutaneous sulfur mustard injuries: strategies for the development of improved therapies. Graham, J.S., Chilcott, R.P., Rice, P., Milner, S.M., Hurst, C.G., Maliner, B.I. Journal of burns and wounds [electronic resource]. (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities