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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Glucokinase and cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) in the human liver. Regulation of gene expression in cultured hepatocytes.

Glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase are key enzymes of glucose metabolism in the rat liver. The former is considered to be instrumental in regulating glucose hepatic release/uptake according to the glycaemia level, and cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is a major flux-generating enzyme for gluconeogenesis. The level of expression of both enzymes and the regulation of their mRNAs in the human liver cell were investigated. Surgical biopsies of liver from patients undergoing partial hepatectomies and parenchymal hepatocytes derived from the biopsies were used to assay glucokinase, hexokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activities. Hepatocytes were placed in culture and the actions of insulin, glucagon and cAMP on glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNAs were studied. The main results are: (a) glucokinase accounts for 95% of the glucose phosphorylation activity of human hepatocytes, although this fact is masked in assays of total liver tissue; (b) glucokinase activity is set at a lower level in human hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes, and vice-versa for the gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; and (c) as previously shown in rat liver, glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNAs are regulated in a reciprocal fashion in human hepatocytes, insulin inducing the first enzyme and repressing the latter, whereas glucagon has opposite effects. These data have interesting implications with respect to metabolic regulation and intracellular hormone signaling in the human liver.[1]


  1. Glucokinase and cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) in the human liver. Regulation of gene expression in cultured hepatocytes. Iynedjian, P.B., Marie, S., Gjinovci, A., Genin, B., Deng, S.P., Buhler, L., Morel, P., Mentha, G. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
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