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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Interaction of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein gC with mammalian cell surface molecules.

The entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV) into mammalian cells is a multistep process beginning with an attachment step involving glycoproteins gC and gB. A second step requires the interaction of glycoprotein gD with a cell surface molecule. We explored the interaction between gC and the cell surface by using purified proteins in the absence of detergent. Truncated forms of gC and gD, gC1(457t), gC2(426t), and gD1(306t), lacking the transmembrane and carboxyl regions were expressed in the baculovirus system. We studied the ability of these proteins to bind to mammalian cells, to bind to immobilized heparin, to block HSV type 1 (HSV-1) attachment to cells, and to inhibit plaque formation by HSV-1. Each of these gC proteins bound to conformation-dependent monoclonal antibodies and to human complement component C3b, indicating that they maintained the same conformation of gC proteins expressed in mammalian cells. Biotinylated gC1(457t) and gC2(426t) each bind to several cell lines. Binding was inhibited by an excess of unlabeled gC but not by gD, indicating specificity. The attachment of gC to cells involves primarily heparan sulfate proteoglycans, since heparitinase treatment of cells reduced gC binding by 50% but had no effect on gD binding. Moreover, binding of gC to two heparan sulfate-deficient L-cell lines, gro2C and sog9, both of which are mostly resistant to HSV infection, was markedly reduced. Purified gD1 (306t), however, bound equally well to the two mutant cell lines. In contrast, saturating amounts of gC1(457t) interfered with HSV-1 attachment to cells but failed to block plaque formation, suggesting a role for gC in attachment but not penetration. A mutant form of gC lacking residues 33 to 123, gC1(delta 33-123t), expressed in the baculovirus system, bound significantly less well to cells than did gC1(457t) and competed poorly with biotinylated gC1(457t) for binding. These results suggest that residues 33 to 123 are important for gC attachment to cells. In contrast, both the mutant and wild-type forms of gC bound to immobilized heparin, indicating that binding of these proteins to the cell surface involves more than a simple interaction with heparin. To determine that the contribution of the N-terminal region of gC is important for HSV attachment, we compared several properties of a mutant HSV-1 which contains gC lacking amino acids 33 to 123 to those of its parental virus, which contains full-length gC. The mutant bound less well to cells than the parental virus but exhibited normal growth properties.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[1]


  1. Interaction of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein gC with mammalian cell surface molecules. Tal-Singer, R., Peng, C., Ponce De Leon, M., Abrams, W.R., Banfield, B.W., Tufaro, F., Cohen, G.H., Eisenberg, R.J. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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