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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Protection from endotoxic shock in mice by pharmacologic inhibition of phosphatidic acid.

Certain phosphatidic/plasmanic/plasmenic acid (PA) species function as lipid intermediates in cell activation and may function directly as intracellular signaling molecules. PA can also be dephosphorylated to 1,2-diradyl-sn-glycerol by phosphatidate phosphohydrolase. Treatment of various cell types, including murine P388 monocytic leukemia cells, with bacterial lipopolysaccharide rapidly stimulates large increases in PA and PA-derived diradylglycerol. Pentoxifylline, 1-(5-oxohexyl)-3,7-dimethylxanthine, inhibits lipopolysaccharide-stimulated formation of PA in P388 cells at high concentrations (IC50 = 500 microM). Lisofylline [1-(5R-hydroxyhexyl)-3,7-dimethylxanthine] is a unique metabolite of pentoxifylline in humans and is > 800-fold more active as an inhibitor of PA formation than pentoxifylline (IC50 = 0.6 microM). Lisofylline does not inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and generation of phosphatidylinositol-derived diradylglycerol. Lisofylline but not pentoxifylline protects BALB/c mice from endotoxin lethality when administered 4 hr after lipopolysaccharide. This protective effect is independent of either agent's effect on suppression of plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha. These data suggest that inhibitors of PA formation may have significant clinical potential in the treatment of sepsis and septic shock.[1]


  1. Protection from endotoxic shock in mice by pharmacologic inhibition of phosphatidic acid. Rice, G.C., Brown, P.A., Nelson, R.J., Bianco, J.A., Singer, J.W., Bursten, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
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