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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Epidermal cell proliferation and promoting ability of phorbol esters.

Dose-response relationships on the abilities of several phorbol ester tumor promoters to promote skin tumors after 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene initiation and to bring about edema, inflammation, and epidermal hyperplasia were determined in female Charles River CD-1 mice. The promoting ability of the potent synthetic promoter, phorbol-12,13-dioctanoate (PdiC8), was determined over a dose range of 0.1-10 mug/application. Administration of PdiC8 two times weekly at dosages of 4, 6, 8, and 10 mug gave little variation in tumor response. A dose-dependent tumor response occurred at doses of 1-4 mug PdiC8. Only 1 papilloma was observed when PdiC8 was given twice weekly at a dose of 0.1 or 0.5 mug. A similar dose-response relation was observed for the ability of PdiC8 to stimulate epidermal hyperplasia. Investigations of other phorbol esters revealed an excellent correlation between their promoting ability and their ability to induce epidermal hyperplasia; however, that was not the case for compounds outside the phorbol ester series (i.e., acetic acid, cantharidin, and ethylphenylpropiolate).[1]


  1. Epidermal cell proliferation and promoting ability of phorbol esters. Slaga, T.J., Scribner, J.D., Viaje, A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
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