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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Edema

  • In these mice, VEGF induced, through IL-13-dependent and -independent pathways, an asthma-like phenotype with inflammation, parenchymal and vascular remodeling, edema, mucus metaplasia, myocyte hyperplasia and airway hyper-responsiveness [1].
  • Pathological increases in vascular leakage lead to edema and swelling, causing serious problems in brain tumors, in diabetic retinopathy, after strokes, during sepsis and also in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and asthma [2].
  • Mice lacking PI3Kgamma did not form edema after intradermal injection of adenosine and when challenged by passive systemic anaphylaxis [3].
  • Transdermal nicotine therapy at doses of 44 mg produced a significantly greater frequency of nausea (28%), vomiting (10%), and erythema with edema at the patch site (30%) than did a 22-mg dose (10%, 2%, and 13%, respectively; P < .01 for each adverse effect) [4].
  • These results indicate that PGE2 plays a major role in tissue edema, hyperalgesia, and IL-6 production at sites of inflammation, and they suggest that selective pharmacologic modulation of PGE2 synthesis or activity may provide a useful means of mitigating the symptoms of inflammatory disease [5].

Psychiatry related information on Edema


High impact information on Edema

  • Compared to histamine, which causes constriction of airways and edema formation, the leukotrienes are three to four orders of magnitude more potent and the effects have longer duration [11].
  • RESULTS: Adverse effects of STI571 were minimal; the most common were nausea, myalgias, edema, and diarrhea [12].
  • As compared with placebo, prophylactic infusions of C1 inhibitor resulted in significantly lower daily symptom scores for the severity of edema of the extremities (P<0.01), larynx (P<0.05), abdomen (P<0.05), and genitourinary tract (P<0.05) [13].
  • Mutations at the alpha-globin locus are the most common class of mutations in humans, with deletion of all four adult alpha-globin genes resulting in the perinatal lethal condition haemoglobin Barts hydrops fetalis [14].
  • Glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency as a cause of hydrops fetalis [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Edema

  • Captopril in idiopathic edema [16].
  • EF, a calmodulin- and Ca2+-dependent adenylate cyclase, is responsible for the edema seen in the disease [17].
  • Trypsin and tryptase directly signal to neurons to stimulate release of these neuropeptides, which mediate inflammatory edema induced by agonists of proteinase-activated receptor 2 [18].
  • A possible explanation for this is that other dipsogenic sites are involved which are beyond the interventricular foramen and that SFO lesions produce an obstruction by edema or debris at the foramen which blocks access of cerebrospinal fluid-borne angiotensin to those sites [19].
  • Liver necrosis and perhaps the induction of lung edema and neoplasia as well as other effects of thiono-sulfur-containing compounds are more likely the result of the covalent binding of the electrophilic S-oxides or S-dioxides or carbene derivatives of these S-oxides and S-dioxides to tissue macromolecules [20].
  • Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify comorbid illnesses, demographic characteristics, other medications, and PD features associated with increased risk of pedal edema among individuals taking pramipexole [21].
  • Cotreatment with spantide attenuated peritracheal edema in captopril-treated DPPIV-deficient rats (P = .005 vs captopril-treated DPPIV-deficient rats and P = .57 vs saline-treated DPPIV-deficient rats) [22].

Biological context of Edema


Anatomical context of Edema

  • Complete Freund's adjuvant-induced mast cell degranulation as well as edema and neutrophil infiltration, which occurred weakly in mast cell-deficient WBB6F(1)-W/W(v) mice, did not occur in NMU-deficient mice [28].
  • Treatment of rats with the mast cell degranulator 48/80 to deplete these cells of their stores of histamine and serotonin abolished completely the ability of TRAP to produce edema [29].
  • Hydrostatic lung edema in response to acute increases in pulmonary artery pressure was not affected by AQP5 deletion [30].
  • In mice, intracolonic administration of PAR1 agonists led to an inflammatory reaction characterized by edema and granulocyte infiltration [31].
  • Kinin generation may contribute to the asthmatic response directly through edema formation and smooth muscle contraction and by augmenting release and/or production of preformed (histamine) and secondary mediators such as leukotrienes and platelet-activating factor [32].

Gene context of Edema

  • IL-2 induced massive lymphocytic infiltration in the liver and lung and moderate infiltration in the kidney in association with organ edema and dysfunction [33].
  • Therapeutic administration of a selective COX-2 inhibitor, SC-58125, rapidly reversed paw edema and reduced the level of PGE2 in paw tissue to baseline [34].
  • AQP1 facilitates hydrostatically driven lung edema but is not required for active near-isosmolar absorption of alveolar fluid [35].
  • The molecular nature of a severe multisystemic disorder with a recurrent nonimmune hydrops fetalis was identified as deficiency of GDP-Man:GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichol mannosyltransferase, the human orthologue of the yeast ALG1 gene (MIM 605907) [36].
  • Chronic transgenic delivery of PlGF-2 to murine epidermis resulted in a significantly increased inflammatory response, associated with more pronounced vascular enlargement, edema, and inflammatory cell infiltration than seen in wild-type mice [37].
  • The most increased, neuronal pentraxin 2 (NPTX2, 7-fold change), was predictive of survival in tumors with the highest levels of edema, in contrast to VEGF (hazard ratio, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.49-5.02; P=0.049) [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Edema



  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces remodeling and enhances TH2-mediated sensitization and inflammation in the lung. Lee, C.G., Link, H., Baluk, P., Homer, R.J., Chapoval, S., Bhandari, V., Kang, M.J., Cohn, L., Kim, Y.K., McDonald, D.M., Elias, J.A. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Angiopoietin-1 protects the adult vasculature against plasma leakage. Thurston, G., Rudge, J.S., Ioffe, E., Zhou, H., Ross, L., Croll, S.D., Glazer, N., Holash, J., McDonald, D.M., Yancopoulos, G.D. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma is an essential amplifier of mast cell function. Laffargue, M., Calvez, R., Finan, P., Trifilieff, A., Barbier, M., Altruda, F., Hirsch, E., Wymann, M.P. Immunity (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Varying nicotine patch dose and type of smoking cessation counseling. Jorenby, D.E., Smith, S.S., Fiore, M.C., Hurt, R.D., Offord, K.P., Croghan, I.T., Hays, J.T., Lewis, S.F., Baker, T.B. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Selective neutralization of prostaglandin E2 blocks inflammation, hyperalgesia, and interleukin 6 production in vivo. Portanova, J.P., Zhang, Y., Anderson, G.D., Hauser, S.D., Masferrer, J.L., Seibert, K., Gregory, S.A., Isakson, P.C. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Anti-inflammatory glycoterpenoids from Scrophularia auriculata. Giner, R.M., Villalba, M.L., Recio, M.C., Máñez, S., Cerdá-Nicolás, M., Ríos, J. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and haematological effects of aethiopinone, an o-naphthoquinone diterpenoid from Salvia aethiopis roots and two hemisynthetic derivatives. Hernández-Pérez, M., Rabanal, R.M., de la Torre, M.C., Rodríguez, B. Planta Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Inflammation and pain sensitivity: effects of leukotrienes D4, B4 and prostaglandin E1 in the rat paw. Rackham, A., Ford-Hutchinson, A.W. Prostaglandins (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. The incidence of, and factors leading to, parvovirus B19-related hydrops fetalis following maternal infection; report of 10 cases and meta-analysis. Yaegashi, N., Niinuma, T., Chisaka, H., Watanabe, T., Uehara, S., Okamura, K., Moffatt, S., Sugamura, K., Yajima, A. J. Infect. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Chronic lung disease in the sleep apnea syndrome. Fletcher, E.C. Lung (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Leukotrienes. Hammarström, S. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Efficacy and safety of a specific inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase in chronic myeloid leukemia. Druker, B.J., Talpaz, M., Resta, D.J., Peng, B., Buchdunger, E., Ford, J.M., Lydon, N.B., Kantarjian, H., Capdeville, R., Ohno-Jones, S., Sawyers, C.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Treatment of hereditary angioedema with a vapor-heated C1 inhibitor concentrate. Waytes, A.T., Rosen, F.S., Frank, M.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Lethal alpha-thalassaemia created by gene targeting in mice and its genetic rescue. Pászty, C., Mohandas, N., Stevens, M.E., Loring, J.F., Liebhaber, S.A., Brion, C.M., Rubin, E.M. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency as a cause of hydrops fetalis. Ravindranath, Y., Paglia, D.E., Warrier, I., Valentine, W., Nakatani, M., Brockway, R.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Captopril in idiopathic edema. Docci, D., Turci, F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Anthrax toxin. Collier, R.J., Young, J.A. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Agonists of proteinase-activated receptor 2 induce inflammation by a neurogenic mechanism. Steinhoff, M., Vergnolle, N., Young, S.H., Tognetto, M., Amadesi, S., Ennes, H.S., Trevisani, M., Hollenberg, M.D., Wallace, J.L., Caughey, G.H., Mitchell, S.E., Williams, L.M., Geppetti, P., Mayer, E.A., Bunnett, N.W. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Ventricular obstruction: effect on drinking induced by intracranial injection of angiotensin. Buggy, J., Fisher, A.E., Hoffman, W.E., Johnson, A.L., Phillips, M.I. Science (1975) [Pubmed]
  20. Toxicology of thiono-sulfur compounds. Neal, R.A., Halpert, J. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Risk factors for the development of pedal edema in patients using pramipexole. Kleiner-Fisman, G., Fisman, D.N. Arch. Neurol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV deficiency increases susceptibility to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced peritracheal edema. Byrd, J.B., Shreevatsa, A., Putlur, P., Foretia, D., McAlexander, L., Sinha, T., Does, M.D., Brown, N.J. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. An unexpected role for the anaphylatoxin C5a receptor in allergic sensitization. Lambrecht, B.N. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of pulmonary edema on regional blood volume and red blood cell transit time. Comparison of high pressure and oleic acid-induced edema. Tsang, J.Y., Montaner, J.S., Hogg, J.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Src blockade stabilizes a Flk/cadherin complex, reducing edema and tissue injury following myocardial infarction. Weis, S., Shintani, S., Weber, A., Kirchmair, R., Wood, M., Cravens, A., McSharry, H., Iwakura, A., Yoon, Y.S., Himes, N., Burstein, D., Doukas, J., Soll, R., Losordo, D., Cheresh, D. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Ethchlorvynol (Placidyl)-induced pulmonary edema. Glauser, F.L., Smith, W.R., Caldwell, A., Hoshiko, M., Dolan, G.S., Baer, H., Olsher, N. Ann. Intern. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  27. Myocardial VEGF expression after cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegia. Tofukuji, M., Metais, C., Li, J., Franklin, A., Simons, M., Sellke, F.W. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. The neuropeptide neuromedin U promotes inflammation by direct activation of mast cells. Moriyama, M., Sato, T., Inoue, H., Fukuyama, S., Teranishi, H., Kangawa, K., Kano, T., Yoshimura, A., Kojima, M. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Thrombin functions as an inflammatory mediator through activation of its receptor. Cirino, G., Cicala, C., Bucci, M.R., Sorrentino, L., Maraganore, J.M., Stone, S.R. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Lung fluid transport in aquaporin-5 knockout mice. Ma, T., Fukuda, N., Song, Y., Matthay, M.A., Verkman, A.S. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. A role for proteinase-activated receptor-1 in inflammatory bowel diseases. Vergnolle, N., Cellars, L., Mencarelli, A., Rizzo, G., Swaminathan, S., Beck, P., Steinhoff, M., Andrade-Gordon, P., Bunnett, N.W., Hollenberg, M.D., Wallace, J.L., Cirino, G., Fiorucci, S. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Detection of tissue kallikrein in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of asthmatic subjects. Christiansen, S.C., Proud, D., Cochrane, C.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. The role of cytokines, adhesion molecules, and chemokines in interleukin-2-induced lymphocytic infiltration in C57BL/6 mice. Anderson, J.A., Lentsch, A.B., Hadjiminas, D.J., Miller, F.N., Martin, A.W., Nakagawa, K., Edwards, M.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 reverses inflammation and expression of COX-2 and interleukin 6 in rat adjuvant arthritis. Anderson, G.D., Hauser, S.D., McGarity, K.L., Bremer, M.E., Isakson, P.C., Gregory, S.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Lung fluid transport in aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 knockout mice. Bai, C., Fukuda, N., Song, Y., Ma, T., Matthay, M.A., Verkman, A.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Deficiency of GDP-Man:GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol mannosyltransferase causes congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ik. Schwarz, M., Thiel, C., Lübbehusen, J., Dorland, B., de Koning, T., von Figura, K., Lehle, L., Körner, C. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. A critical role of placental growth factor in the induction of inflammation and edema formation. Oura, H., Bertoncini, J., Velasco, P., Brown, L.F., Carmeliet, P., Detmar, M. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Relationship between survival and edema in malignant gliomas: role of vascular endothelial growth factor and neuronal pentraxin 2. Carlson, M.R., Pope, W.B., Horvath, S., Braunstein, J.G., Nghiemphu, P., Tso, C.L., Mellinghoff, I., Lai, A., Liau, L.M., Mischel, P.S., Dong, J., Nelson, S.F., Cloughesy, T.F. Clin. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  39. Interactions among inflammatory mediators on edema formation in the canine forelimb. Amelang, E., Prasad, C.M., Raymond, R.M., Grega, G.J. Circ. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  40. Anti-inflammatory actions of enprofylline, a modified xanthine, in the canine forelimb. Dobbins, D.E., Soika, C.Y., Buehn, M.J., Dabney, J.M. Circ. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  41. Non-hydrostatic pulmonary edema after coronary artery ligation in dogs. Protective effect of indomethacin. Richeson, J.F., Paulshock, C., Yun, P.N. Circ. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  42. Essential role for nitric oxide in neurogenic inflammation in rat cutaneous microcirculation. Evidence for an endothelium-independent mechanism. Kajekar, R., Moore, P.K., Brain, S.D. Circ. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  43. Acute hepatic allograft rejection: incidence, risk factors, and impact on outcome. Wiesner, R.H., Demetris, A.J., Belle, S.H., Seaberg, E.C., Lake, J.R., Zetterman, R.K., Everhart, J., Detre, K.M. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
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