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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Standardization of the chromium-51 release, cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay: cryopreservation of mouse effector and target cells.

Utilizing controlled cryopreservation techniques, we were able to standardize the 51Cr release cytotoxicity assay and thereby ensured reliable comparisons between results obtained on different days. Optimal conditions for freezing of both effector and target cells were quite similar. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at a concentration of 7.5-10.0% was employed as the cryoprotective agent and cells were frozen at the rate of -1 degrees C/minute. The handling procedures for the cells before and after freezing were important. Factors affecting recovery of functional reactivity were related to toxicity of DMSO for the cells, the osmotic stress placed upon the cells as the DMSO was being removed after thawing, the handling temperature of the freshly thawed cells, and the susceptibility of cells to mechanical damage immediately after thawing. The recovery of lymphocytes after freezing was about 70%; the recovery of cytotoxicity was around 85%. Syngeneic cytotoxic reactivity induced by inoculation with the Moloney strain of murine sarcoma virus was cryopreserved, as were allogeneic cytotoxicity and natural cytotoxic reactivity. Multiple tests employing effector cells from the same frozen pool gave reproducible results; the standard error of the mean percent cytotoxicity was less than 1.5%. Cryopreserved target cells gave decreased day-to-day variability in susceptibility to lysis, since the same population of cells could be employed in each assay. These results demonstrated conclusively that we can now have a constant source of effector cells and target cells, which can be used from assay to assay as an internal standard.[1]


  1. Standardization of the chromium-51 release, cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay: cryopreservation of mouse effector and target cells. Holden, H.T., Oldham, R.K., Ortaldo, J.R., Herberman, R.B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
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