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Chemical Compound Review

Dimexide     methylsulfinylmethane

Synonyms: Sclerosol, Topsym, Rimso, DMSO, Rimso-50, ...
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Disease relevance of dimethyl sulfoxide

  • The stability of globin mRNA in murine erythroleukemia cells (Friend cells) before and during DMSO-induced differentiation was investigated [1].
  • Factors affecting recovery of functional reactivity were related to toxicity of DMSO for the cells, the osmotic stress placed upon the cells as the DMSO was being removed after thawing, the handling temperature of the freshly thawed cells, and the susceptibility of cells to mechanical damage immediately after thawing [2].
  • To determine whether alterations in the lipid composition and fluidity of rat colonic brush border membranes existed before the development of DMH-induced colon cancer, rats were injected s.c. with this agent (20 mg/kg body weight per wk) or diluent for 5, 10, and 15 wk [3].
  • Thus DMSO can induce H-2 expression and alter the sensitivity of murine lymphoma cells to different effector cells [4].
  • The effects of HIV infection on U937 cells strikingly resemble the effects of differentiation-inducing agents, such as PMA and DMSO, on the U937 phenotype [5].

Psychiatry related information on dimethyl sulfoxide

  • The relationship between drug dose and loss of PE is much steeper for DMSO than for RA, suggesting that these two drugs affect different stages of the differentiation decision-making apparatus [6].
  • The highest yields of tertiary amine products were seen when DMSO was used as reaction solvent in conjunction with a reaction time of 18 h at room temperature [7].
  • Role of AMPA receptor desensitization and the side effects of a DMSO vehicle on reticulospinal EPSPs and locomotor activity [8].
  • RESULT(S): At time 1, MMP and MMPI activities were similar in all rats; however, PA and PAI activities were less in rats pretreated with GnRH-a than with diluent [9].
  • At sub-toxic concentrations, DMSO decreases planarian exploratory behavior in a concentration-dependent manner [10].

High impact information on dimethyl sulfoxide


Chemical compound and disease context of dimethyl sulfoxide


Biological context of dimethyl sulfoxide


Anatomical context of dimethyl sulfoxide


Associations of dimethyl sulfoxide with other chemical compounds


Gene context of dimethyl sulfoxide

  • DMSO was found to directly inhibit IL-8 expression at the level of transcription [32].
  • Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis revealed induction of H-2Kk and beta 2m 3 days after culture of YAC-1 with DMSO, whereas optimal H-2Dd induction required more than 1 week [4].
  • The E-boxes at the hTERT proximal promoter were occupied in vivo by c-Myc in exponentially proliferating HL60 cells but not in cells induced to differentiate by DMSO [33].
  • In this work, P19 cells were allowed to aggregate from day 0 to day 4 in the presence of 0.5% DMSO, 10(-7) M OT and/or 10(-7) M OT antagonist (OTA), and then cultured in the absence of these factors until day 14 [34].
  • During the first 12 h of treatment with DMSO, MEL cells undergo a temporary decrease in the level of c-myc mRNA, followed by a temporary withdrawal from the cell cycle [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of dimethyl sulfoxide

  • In the double-blind study, none of the 12 lesions in the six patients injected with diluent had responses, as compared with 10 of the 12 lesions in the six patients injected with hCG (P=0.015) [36].
  • In a double-blind trial, 12 additional patients were randomly assigned to receive intralesional injections of 2000 IU of hCG or diluent alone (6 patients each; two lesions per patient) [36].
  • The process of erythroid differentiation in mouse Friend leukemia virus transformed cells (T3-C1-2) was examined by following changes in several enzyme activities of the heme biosynthetic pathway and in heme concentration while the cells were undergoing erythroid differentiation after treatment with dimethylsulfoxide [37].
  • A final experiment on rats with established bladder tumors compared the cytoreductive effect of continuous intravesical infusion of DOX in 50% DMSO with that of DOX alone and with that in a sham-treated control group; there were 20 rats in each group [38].
  • The use of DMSO as a drug carrier merits further evaluation as a way of enhancing the efficacy of regional chemotherapy regimens [38].


  1. A change in the stability of globin mRNA during the induction of murine erythroleukemia cells. Lowenhaupt, K., Lingrel, J.B. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. Standardization of the chromium-51 release, cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay: cryopreservation of mouse effector and target cells. Holden, H.T., Oldham, R.K., Ortaldo, J.R., Herberman, R.B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Premalignant alterations in the lipid composition and fluidity of colonic brush border membranes of rats administered 1,2 dimethylhydrazine. Brasitus, T.A., Dudeja, P.K., Dahiya, R. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide treatment on H-2 expression and susceptibility to NK- or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated lysis of the YAC-1 lymphoma and its beta 2-microglobulin-deficient variant. Yamasaki, T., Klein, G., Ljunggren, H.G., Höglund, P., Ohlén, C., Petersson, M.G., Kärre, K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Human immunodeficiency virus infection down-regulates HLA class II expression and induces differentiation in promonocytic U937 cells. Petit, A.J., Terpstra, F.G., Miedema, F. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Cell-cell interaction can influence drug-induced differentiation of murine embryonal carcinoma cells. Campione-Piccardo, J., Sun, J.J., Craig, J., McBurney, M.W. Dev. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Optimization of reaction conditions for REM resin-bound quaternization reactions. Cameron, K.S., Morphy, J.R., Rankovic, Z., York, M. Journal of combinatorial chemistry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of AMPA receptor desensitization and the side effects of a DMSO vehicle on reticulospinal EPSPs and locomotor activity. Tsvyetlynska, N.A., Hill, R.H., Grillner, S. J. Neurophysiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) therapy alters activity of plasminogen activators, matrix metalloproteinases, and their inhibitors in rat models for adhesion formation and endometriosis: potential GnRH-a-regulated mechanisms reducing adhesion formation. Sharpe-Timms, K.L., Zimmer, R.L., Jolliff, W.J., Wright, J.A., Nothnick, W.B., Curry, T.E. Fertil. Steril. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Toxicity and behavioral effects of dimethylsulfoxide in planaria. Pagán, O.R., Rowlands, A.L., Urban, K.R. Neurosci. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. An early decrease in phosphatidylinositol turnover occurs on induction of Friend cell differentiation and precedes the decrease in c-myc expression. Faletto, D.L., Arrow, A.S., Macara, I.G. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Differences in human alpha- and beta-globin gene expression in mouse erythroleukemia cells: the role of intragenic sequences. Charnay, P., Treisman, R., Mellon, P., Chao, M., Axel, R., Maniatis, T. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Role of mitochondrial membrane potential in the regulation of murine erythroleukemia cell differentiation. Levenson, R., Macara, I.G., Smith, R.L., Cantley, L., Housman, D. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Manipulation of myogenesis in vitro: reversible inhibition by DMSO. Blau, H.M., Epstein, C.J. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Dimethyl sulfoxide-induced transglutaminase activity in murine-derived Friend erythroleukemia cells. Hsu, K.H., Friedman, H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Role of oxygen-derived free radicals in diet-induced hemorrhagic pancreatitis in mice. Rutledge, P.L., Saluja, A.K., Powers, R.E., Steer, M.L. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Induction of erythroid differentiation in murine virus infected eythroleukemia cells by highly polar compounds. Tanaka, M., Levy, J., Terada, M., Breslow, R., Rifkind, R.A., Marks, P.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  18. Purine metabolism in murine virus-induced erythroleukemic cells during differentiation in vitro. Reem, G.H., Friend, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  19. Role of oxygen-derived free radicals in acute angiotensin II--induced hypertensive vascular disease in the rat. Wilson, S.K. Circ. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Control of globin gene expression by steroid hormones in differentiating Friend leukemia cells. Lo, S.C., Aft, R., Ross, J., Mueller, G.C. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  21. Induction of globin mRNA accumulation by hemin in cultured erythroleukemic cells. Ross, J., Sautner, D. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. Constitutive c-myc oncogene expression blocks mouse erythroleukaemia cell differentiation but not commitment. Coppola, J.A., Cole, M.D. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Induction by HMBA and DMSO of genes introduced into mouse erythroleukemia and other cell lines by transient transfection. Campbell, P.L., Kulozik, A.E., Woodham, J.P., Jones, R.W. Genes Dev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Induction of erythroid differentiation in vitro by purines and purine analogues. Gusella, J.F., Housman, D. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. Accumulation of alpha- and beta-globin messenger RNAs in mouse erythroleukemia cells. Nudel, U., Salmon, J., Fibach, E., Terada, M., Rifkind, R., Marks, P.A., Bank, A. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. Activation of teratocarcinoma-derived hemoglobin genes in teratocarcinoma-Friend cell hybrids. McBurney, M.W., Featherstone, M.S., Kaplan, H. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  27. Chemical inducers of differentiation in Friend leukaemia cells inhibit lymphocyte mitogenesis. Stenzel, K.H., Schwartz, R., Rubin, A.L., Novogrodsky, A. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  28. Analysis of RNA initiated in isolated mouse myeloma nuclei using purine nucleoside 5'[gamma-S]triphosphates as affinity probes. Smith, M.M., Reeve, A.E., Huang, R.C. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  29. Control of lysozyme induction in the differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells. Krystosek, A., Sachs, L. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. Deregulated expression of c-myc by murine erythroleukaemia cells prevents differentiation. Prochownik, E.V., Kukowska, J. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  31. Inhibition of c-fes expression by an antisense oligomer causes apoptosis of HL60 cells induced to granulocytic differentiation. Manfredini, R., Grande, A., Tagliafico, E., Barbieri, D., Zucchini, P., Citro, G., Zupi, G., Franceschi, C., Torelli, U., Ferrari, S. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Oxygen radical scavengers selectively inhibit interleukin 8 production in human whole blood. DeForge, L.E., Fantone, J.C., Kenney, J.S., Remick, D.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. Switch from Myc/Max to Mad1/Max binding and decrease in histone acetylation at the telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter during differentiation of HL60 cells. Xu, D., Popov, N., Hou, M., Wang, Q., Björkholm, M., Gruber, A., Menkel, A.R., Henriksson, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Oxytocin induces differentiation of P19 embryonic stem cells to cardiomyocytes. Paquin, J., Danalache, B.A., Jankowski, M., McCann, S.M., Gutkowska, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Continued withdrawal from the cell cycle and regulation of cellular genes in mouse erythroleukemia cells blocked in differentiation by the c-myc oncogene. Coppola, J.A., Parker, J.M., Schuler, G.D., Cole, M.D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. The effects of preparations of human chorionic gonadotropin on AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Gill, P.S., Lunardi-Ishkandar, Y., Louie, S., Tulpule, A., Zheng, T., Espina, B.M., Besnier, J.M., Hermans, P., Levine, A.M., Bryant, J.L., Gallo, R.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Sequential induction of heme pathway enzymes during erythroid differentiation of mouse Friend leukemia virus-infected cells. Sassa, S. J. Exp. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  38. Regional chemotherapy for bladder neoplasms using continuous intravesical infusion of doxorubicin: impact of concomitant administration of dimethyl sulfoxide on drug absorption and antitumor activity. See, W.A., Xia, Q. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
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