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Chemical Compound Review

AC1L3OVT     chromium(+6) cation

Synonyms: 51Cr6+, chromium-51(6+), Chromium,, isotope of mass 51 (51Cr6+)
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Disease relevance of Chromium-51


High impact information on Chromium-51

  • The cytotoxic activities of agonistic anti-Fas antibodies, Fas ligand, and allogeneic peripheral blood leukocytes, in the absence or presence of Fas-blocking monoclonal antibodies, against tumor cells were assessed by methylene blue staining and chromium-51 release assays [6].
  • Spontaneous human mononuclear cell cytotoxicity to cultured tumor cells: reproducibility of serial measurements with the use of a chromium-51-release microcytotoxicity assay [7].
  • Cytoprotection against oxidant injury was determined by chromium 51 release and filamentous and globular actin assays [8].
  • In a prospective study to see whether HLA sensitisation is associated with increased red-blood-cell (RBC) destruction after HLA-incompatible transfusion, chromium-51-labelled RBC survival and site of sequestration were monitored in nine patients in whom HLA antibodies had developed after RBC transfusions [9].
  • Haemolytic transfusion reactions due to HLA antibodies. A prospective study combining red-cell serology with investigations of chromium-51-labelled red-cell kinetics [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Chromium-51


Biological context of Chromium-51


Anatomical context of Chromium-51


Associations of Chromium-51 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Chromium-51

  • Fresh bone marrow cells have no measurable NK activity when tested against K562 and Daudi target cell lines in a 4 h chromium-51 release assay, and it requires at least 6 days of culture in IL-2 to develop optimal cytotoxic activity [30].
  • The cytotoxicity of a WT1-specific CTL clone against hematologic malignant cells, including myeloma cells, was examined by standard chromium-51 release assays [31].
  • To analyze this we incubated mucin 1 (MUC1) RNA-transfected DCs with compounds known to inhibit HLA class I presentation and used these cells in chromium 51 (51Cr)-release assays [32].
  • Infected cells were labeled with chromium-51, treated with a cocktail of four different monoclonal antibodies against HIV gp120, and co-cultured with freshly isolated autologous NK cells that were incubated with or without anti-CD159a, anti-CD158a, and CD158b, or all three antibodies combined [33].
  • Specific tumor cell lysis was tested with the PSA expressing prostate carcinoma cell line LNCaP as target and interleukin-2 activated human peripheral blood lymphocytes as effector cells in a chromium-51-release assay [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Chromium-51


  1. Detection of complement-dependent lytic antibodies in sera from feline leukemia virus-infected cats by the chromium-51 release assay. Grant, C.K., Worley, M.B., DeBoer, D.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Changes caused in the homing patterns of chromium 51-labeled lymphoid cells by Moloney sarcoma virus infection. Gillette, R.W., Fox, A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Tumor-specific cell-mediated immunity in household contacts of cancer patients.. Byers, V.S., Levin, A.S., Hackett, A.J., Fudenberg, H.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. Mucosal injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion in the piglet intestine: influences of age and feeding. Crissinger, K.D., Granger, D.N. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Cytotoxic effector cells specific for B Cell lines transformed by Epstein-Barr virus are present in patients with infectious mononucleosis. Svedmyr, E., Jondal, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. Sensitization of cancer cells treated with cytotoxic drugs to fas-mediated cytotoxicity. Micheau, O., Solary, E., Hammann, A., Martin, F., Dimanche-Boitrel, M.T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Spontaneous human mononuclear cell cytotoxicity to cultured tumor cells: reproducibility of serial measurements with the use of a chromium-51-release microcytotoxicity assay. Levin, A.C., Massey, R.J., Deinhardt, F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  8. Probiotics inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB and induce heat shock proteins in colonic epithelial cells through proteasome inhibition. Petrof, E.O., Kojima, K., Ropeleski, M.J., Musch, M.W., Tao, Y., De Simone, C., Chang, E.B. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Haemolytic transfusion reactions due to HLA antibodies. A prospective study combining red-cell serology with investigations of chromium-51-labelled red-cell kinetics. Panzer, S., Püchler, K., Mayr, W.R., Höcker, P., Graninger, W., Lechner, K. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Comparison of leukocyte excretion and blood loss in inflammatory disease of the bowel. Teahon, K., Bjarnason, I. Gut (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Increased pulmonary and intestinal permeability in Crohn's disease. Adenis, A., Colombel, J.F., Lecouffe, P., Wallaert, B., Hecquet, B., Marchandise, X., Cortot, A. Gut (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of seasonal allergic rhinitis on airway mucosal absorption of chromium-51 labelled EDTA. Greiff, L., Wollmer, P., Svensson, C., Andersson, M., Persson, C.G. Thorax (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Platelet and fibrinogen survival in coronary atherosclerosis. Response to medical and surgical therapy. Ritchie, J.L., Harker, L.A. Am. J. Cardiol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. In vitro effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on natural killer cell cytolysis in women with and without endometriosis. Wong, K.H., Simon, J.A. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Interaction between endotoxin and human monocytes: characteristics of the binding of 3H-labeled lipopolysaccharide and 51Cr-labeled lipid A before and after the induction of endotoxin tolerance. Larsen, N.E., Sullivan, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Dual role for nitric oxide in the regulation of plasma volume and albumin escape during endotoxin shock in conscious rats. Filep, J.G., Delalandre, A., Beauchamp, M. Circ. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. In vitro predictors of therapeutic response in melanoma patients receiving tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and interleukin-2. Schwartzentruber, D.J., Hom, S.S., Dadmarz, R., White, D.E., Yannelli, J.R., Steinberg, S.M., Rosenberg, S.A., Topalian, S.L. J. Clin. Oncol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of alloimmune injury on contraction and relaxation in cultured myocytes and intact cardiac allografts. Ensley, R.D., Ives, M., Zhao, L., McMillan, M., Shelby, J., Barry, W.H. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Ectodermal influence on physiological cell death in the posterior necrotic zone of the chick wing bud. Brewton, R.G., MacCabe, J.A. Dev. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Platelet survival time following aortic valve replacement. Steele, P., Weily, H., Davies, H., Ppppas, G., Genton, E. Circulation (1975) [Pubmed]
  21. Identification and characterization of epitopes of the receptor for hyaluronic acid-mediated motility (RHAMM/CD168) recognized by CD8+ T cells of HLA-A2-positive patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Greiner, J., Li, L., Ringhoffer, M., Barth, T.F., Giannopoulos, K., Guillaume, P., Ritter, G., Wiesneth, M., Döhner, H., Schmitt, M. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Oligodendrocyte lysis by CD4+ T cells independent of tumor necrosis factor. Antel, J.P., Williams, K., Blain, M., McRea, E., McLaurin, J. Ann. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Hydrogen peroxide causes the fatal injury to human fibroblasts exposed to oxygen radicals. Simon, R.H., Scoggin, C.H., Patterson, D. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. Autoreactive CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes to major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A in patients with Behçet's disease. Yasuoka, H., Okazaki, Y., Kawakami, Y., Hirakata, M., Inoko, H., Ikeda, Y., Kuwana, M. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Enhanced survival of sickle erythrocytes upon treatment with glyceraldehyde. Benjamin, L.J., Manning, J.M. Blood (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. COX-2 inhibition with rofecoxib does not increase intestinal permeability in healthy subjects: a double blind crossover study comparing rofecoxib with placebo and indomethacin. Sigthorsson, G., Crane, R., Simon, T., Hoover, M., Quan, H., Bolognese, J., Bjarnason, I. Gut (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Radiochromium (chromium-51) evaluation of gastrointestinal blood loss associated with placebo, aspirin, and nabumetone. Lussier, A., LeBel, E. Am. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Selective platelet deposition during focal cerebral ischemia in cats. Jafar, J.J., Menoni, R., Feinberg, H., LeBreton, G., Crowell, R.M. Stroke (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Early renal involvement in diabetes mellitus: comparison of renal Doppler US and radioisotope evaluation of glomerular hyperfiltration. Marzano, M.A., Pompili, M., Rapaccini, G.L., Covino, M., Cotroneo, P., Manto, A., Todaro, L., Ghirlanda, G., Gasbarrini, G. Radiology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Culture of normal and leukemic bone marrow in interleukin-2: analysis of cell activation, cell proliferation, and cytokine production. Klingemann, H.G., Neerunjun, J., Schwulera, U., Ziltener, H.J. Leukemia (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Myeloma cells are highly sensitive to the granule exocytosis pathway mediated by WT1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Azuma, T., Otsuki, T., Kuzushima, K., Froelich, C.J., Fujita, S., Yasukawa, M. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Processing and presentation of HLA class I and II epitopes by dendritic cells after transfection with in vitro-transcribed MUC1 RNA. Dörfel, D., Appel, S., Grünebach, F., Weck, M.M., Müller, M.R., Heine, A., Brossart, P. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. HLA-C and HLA-E reduce antibody-dependent natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity of HIV-infected primary T cell blasts. Ward, J.P., Bonaparte, M.I., Barker, E. AIDS (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Construction and in vivo evaluation of an anti-PSA x anti-CD3 bispecific antibody for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer. Katzenwadel, A., Schleer, H., Gierschner, D., Wetterauer, U., Elsässer-Beile, U. Anticancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Standardization of the chromium-51 release, cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay: cryopreservation of mouse effector and target cells. Holden, H.T., Oldham, R.K., Ortaldo, J.R., Herberman, R.B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  36. Effect of irradiation on hepatic natural killer cells. Vanderkerken, K., Bouwens, L., Kuppen, P., De Neve, W., Van den Berg, K., Baekeland, M., Wisse, E. Hepatology (1994) [Pubmed]
  37. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity effector cell capability among normal individuals. Edwards, D.L., Avis, F.P. J. Immunol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  38. Soluble interleukin-2 receptors inhibit interleukin 2-dependent proliferation and cytotoxicity: explanation for diminished natural killer cell activity in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas in vivo? Dummer, R., Posseckert, G., Nestle, F., Witzgall, R., Burger, M., Becker, J.C., Schäfer, E., Wiede, J., Sebald, W., Burg, G. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  39. Relevance of additive components of University of Wisconsin cold-storage solution. An experimental study in the rat. Wahlberg, J., Jacobsson, J., Tufveson, G. Transplantation (1989) [Pubmed]
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