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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Molecular dissection of the mouse interleukin-4 promoter.

Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of interleukin 4 (IL-4) may shed light on the differentiation of lymphokine-producing phenotypes of CD4+ T cells. We have identified two DNA segments that are necessary for full phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced activity of the IL-4 promoter region in the thymoma cell line EL4. Through deletion and mutation analyses, one of these segments (-57 through -47) was shown to be indispensable for promoter function. We designated this sequence consensus sequence 1 ( CS1), as it shares homology with a sequence (ATTTTCCNNTG) that appears five times in the proximal 302-base-pair (bp) region 5' of the gene. We examined CS1 in further detail, as well as a second consensus sequence, CS2, located at nucleotides -75 through -65; both are within a minimal 83-bp construct that expresses full promoter activity. CS1- and CS2-spanning oligonucleotides bound apparently distinct PMA-inducible, sequence-specific factors in mobility-shift assays. Multimer constructs linking CS1- or CS2-spanning oligonucleotides to a heterologous promotor revealed that the CS1 construct had the greater enhancer activity in EL4 cells. Mutating the CS1 sequence within the context of the 302-bp promoter abolished all activity of the promoter, while mutating the CS2 sequence alone had little effect. Furthermore, a CS1 multimer could drive a heterologous promoter in an IL-4-producing [helper T-cell type 2 (TH2-type)] T-cell clone but not in a non-IL-4-producing (TH1-type) clone, suggesting a mechanism by which IL-4 production could be differentially regulated in TH subsets.[1]


  1. Molecular dissection of the mouse interleukin-4 promoter. Bruhn, K.W., Nelms, K., Boulay, J.L., Paul, W.E., Lenardo, M.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
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