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MeSH Review

T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer

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Disease relevance of T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer


Psychiatry related information on T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer

  • Compared with wakefulness, early nocturnal sleep induced a shift in the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance towards increased Th1 activity, as indicated by an increased (p <.05) ratio of IFN-gamma/IL-4 producing T helper cells [6].

High impact information on T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer

  • A newly identified activation antigen of helper T cells, a ligand for the B cell differentiation antigen, CD40, is a key component of contact help [7].
  • On the basis of the studies discussed in the first section, it appears that the recruitment of most helper-T cell clones takes place by APC that can internalize and process the protein antigens, be they soluble or part of the structure of microorganisms [8].
  • Naive T helper cells differentiate into two subsets, Th1 and Th2, each with distinct functions and cytokine profiles [9].
  • Distinct roles for the costimulatory ligands B7-1 and B7-2 in T helper cell differentiation [10]?
  • Our results suggest that the T cell ligand of CD22 is CD45RO, an isoform of the leukocyte common antigen class of phosphotyrosine phosphatases associated with the helper T cell phenotype [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer


Biological context of T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer


Anatomical context of T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer


Associations of T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer with chemical compounds

  • Two human helper T cell determinants in influenza have been identified, one in the hemagglutinin and the other in the matrix protein (M1) [27].
  • The T-cell surface glycoprotein, CD4, is expressed predominantly on helper T cells and is thought to play a major role in cell-cell interactions [28].
  • The mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK-1 and ERK-2 and the guanosine triphosphate-binding protein p21ras were found to remain unactivated upon stimulation of anergic murine T helper cell 1 clones [29].
  • Soluble IL-7 administered to TRAF6(-/-) embryos was sufficient to restore LN genesis indicating the functional similarities of the IL-7R(alpha)(+) inducer cells for LN and PP genesis [30].
  • Here we present evidence that CD4 affects the responsiveness of T helper cells by controlling spatial localization of the tyrosine kinase Lck in the synapse [31].

Gene context of T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer


  1. Modulation of cellular immune function by cyclophosphamide in children with minimal-change nephropathy. Feehally, J., Beattie, T.J., Brenchley, P.E., Coupes, B.M., Houston, I.B., Mallick, N.P., Postlethwaite, R.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Histamine regulates T-cell and antibody responses by differential expression of H1 and H2 receptors. Jutel, M., Watanabe, T., Klunker, S., Akdis, M., Thomet, O.A., Malolepszy, J., Zak-Nejmark, T., Koga, R., Kobayashi, T., Blaser, K., Akdis, C.A. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Induction of a non-encephalitogenic type 2 T helper-cell autoimmune response in multiple sclerosis after administration of an altered peptide ligand in a placebo-controlled, randomized phase II trial. The Altered Peptide Ligand in Relapsing MS Study Group. Kappos, L., Comi, G., Panitch, H., Oger, J., Antel, J., Conlon, P., Steinman, L. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Deletion of a conserved Il4 silencer impairs T helper type 1-mediated immunity. Ansel, K.M., Greenwald, R.J., Agarwal, S., Bassing, C.H., Monticelli, S., Interlandi, J., Djuretic, I.M., Lee, D.U., Sharpe, A.H., Alt, F.W., Rao, A. Nat. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Cure of progressive murine leishmaniasis: interleukin 4 dominance is abolished by transient CD4(+) T cell depletion and T helper cell type 1-selective cytokine therapy. Heinzel, F.P., Rerko, R.M. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Sleep associated regulation of T helper 1/T helper 2 cytokine balance in humans. Dimitrov, S., Lange, T., Tieken, S., Fehm, H.L., Born, J. Brain Behav. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. T cell-dependent B cell activation. Parker, D.C. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Antigen-presenting function of the macrophage. Unanue, E.R. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. A novel transcription factor, T-bet, directs Th1 lineage commitment. Szabo, S.J., Kim, S.T., Costa, G.L., Zhang, X., Fathman, C.G., Glimcher, L.H. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Distinct roles for the costimulatory ligands B7-1 and B7-2 in T helper cell differentiation? Thompson, C.B. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. The B lymphocyte adhesion molecule CD22 interacts with leukocyte common antigen CD45RO on T cells and alpha 2-6 sialyltransferase, CD75, on B cells. Stamenkovic, I., Sgroi, D., Aruffo, A., Sy, M.S., Anderson, T. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Spred-1 negatively regulates allergen-induced airway eosinophilia and hyperresponsiveness. Inoue, H., Kato, R., Fukuyama, S., Nonami, A., Taniguchi, K., Matsumoto, K., Nakano, T., Tsuda, M., Matsumura, M., Kubo, M., Ishikawa, F., Moon, B.G., Takatsu, K., Nakanishi, Y., Yoshimura, A. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Helper T cells induced by an immunopurified herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-I) 115 kilodalton glycoprotein (gB) protect mice against HSV-I infection. Chan, W.L., Lukig, M.L., Liew, F.Y. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Pharmacological inhibition of in vitro infectivity of human T lymphotropic virus type I. Matsushita, S., Mitsuya, H., Reitz, M.S., Broder, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Diversity of clinical spectrum of HTLV-III infection. Valle, S.L., Saxinger, C., Ranki, A., Antonen, J., Suni, J., Lähdevirta, J., Krohn, K. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Motexafin gadolinium (Gd-Tex) selectively induces apoptosis in HIV-1 infected CD4+ T helper cells. Perez, O.D., Nolan, G.P., Magda, D., Miller, R.A., Herzenberg, L.A., Herzenberg, L.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Growth control of activated, synchronized murine B cells by the C3d fragment of human complement. Melchers, F., Erdei, A., Schulz, T., Dierich, M.P. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Regulatory T cell clones induced by oral tolerance: suppression of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Chen, Y., Kuchroo, V.K., Inobe, J., Hafler, D.A., Weiner, H.L. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Th1 cells regulate hematopoietic progenitor cell homeostasis by production of oncostatin M. Broxmeyer, H.E., Bruns, H.A., Zhang, S., Cooper, S., Hangoc, G., McKenzie, A.N., Dent, A.L., Schindler, U., Naeger, L.K., Hoey, T., Kaplan, M.H. Immunity (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. CD28-independent induction of T helper cells and immunoglobulin class switches requires costimulation by the heat-stable antigen. Wu, Y., Zhou, Q., Zheng, P., Liu, Y. J. Exp. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Combined stimulation with the T helper cell type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 induces mouse mast cell apoptosis. Yeatman, C.F., Jacobs-Helber, S.M., Mirmonsef, P., Gillespie, S.R., Bouton, L.A., Collins, H.A., Sawyer, S.T., Shelburne, C.P., Ryan, J.J. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Rearranged beta T cell receptor genes in a helper T cell clone specific for lysozyme: no correlation between V beta and MHC restriction. Goverman, J., Minard, K., Shastri, N., Hunkapiller, T., Hansburg, D., Sercarz, E., Hood, L. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Treatment of intractable rheumatoid arthritis with total lymphoid irradiation. Kotzin, B.L., Strober, S., Engleman, E.G., Calin, A., Hoppe, R.T., Kansas, G.S., Terrell, C.P., Kaplan, H.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. Binding of immunogenic peptides to Ia histocompatibility molecules. Babbitt, B.P., Allen, P.M., Matsueda, G., Haber, E., Unanue, E.R. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Induction of tolerance by monoclonal antibody therapy. Benjamin, R.J., Waldmann, H. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Selective reconstitution of nude mice with long-term cultured and cloned specific helper T cells. Tees, R., Schreier, M.H. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  27. Structural model of HLA-DR1 restricted T cell antigen recognition. Rothbard, J.B., Lechler, R.I., Howland, K., Bal, V., Eckels, D.D., Sekaly, R., Long, E.O., Taylor, W.R., Lamb, J.R. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. Unusual intron in the immunoglobulin domain of the newly isolated murine CD4 (L3T4) gene. Littman, D.R., Gettner, S.N. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Blocked Ras activation in anergic CD4+ T cells. Fields, P.E., Gajewski, T.F., Fitch, F.W. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Different cytokines induce surface lymphotoxin-alphabeta on IL-7 receptor-alpha cells that differentially engender lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Yoshida, H., Naito, A., Inoue, J., Satoh, M., Santee-Cooper, S.M., Ware, C.F., Togawa, A., Nishikawa, S., Nishikawa, S. Immunity (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. CD4 enhances T cell sensitivity to antigen by coordinating Lck accumulation at the immunological synapse. Li, Q.J., Dinner, A.R., Qi, S., Irvine, D.J., Huppa, J.B., Davis, M.M., Chakraborty, A.K. Nat. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. The T lymphocyte glycoprotein CD2 binds the cell surface ligand LFA-3. Selvaraj, P., Plunkett, M.L., Dustin, M., Sanders, M.E., Shaw, S., Springer, T.A. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. Interleukin-4 therapy of psoriasis induces Th2 responses and improves human autoimmune disease. Ghoreschi, K., Thomas, P., Breit, S., Dugas, M., Mailhammer, R., van Eden, W., van der Zee, R., Biedermann, T., Prinz, J., Mack, M., Mrowietz, U., Christophers, E., Schlöndorff, D., Plewig, G., Sander, C.A., Röcken, M. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Regulation of NF-kappaB, Th activation, and autoinflammation by the forkhead transcription factor Foxo3a. Lin, L., Hron, J.D., Peng, S.L. Immunity (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Mutation of Tec family kinases alters T helper cell differentiation. Schaeffer, E.M., Yap, G.S., Lewis, C.M., Czar, M.J., McVicar, D.W., Cheever, A.W., Sher, A., Schwartzberg, P.L. Nat. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Gene silencing quantitatively controls the function of a developmental trans-activator. Hutchins, A.S., Mullen, A.C., Lee, H.W., Sykes, K.J., High, F.A., Hendrich, B.D., Bird, A.P., Reiner, S.L. Mol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. CD226 (DNAM-1) is involved in lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 costimulatory signal for naive T cell differentiation and proliferation. Shibuya, K., Shirakawa, J., Kameyama, T., Honda, S., Tahara-Hanaoka, S., Miyamoto, A., Onodera, M., Sumida, T., Nakauchi, H., Miyoshi, H., Shibuya, A. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 controls chemokine production and T helper cell type 2 cell trafficking in allergic pulmonary inflammation. Mathew, A., MacLean, J.A., DeHaan, E., Tager, A.M., Green, F.H., Luster, A.D. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Experimental autoimmune peripheral neuritis induced in BALB/c mice by myelin basic protein-specific T cell clones. Abromson-Leeman, S., Bronson, R., Dorf, M.E. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  40. Rosette-forming ability of thymus-derived lymphocytes in humoral and cell-mediated immunity. II. Helper cell activity. Elliott, B.E., Haskill, J.S. J. Exp. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  41. MRG1, the product of a melanocyte-specific gene related gene, is a cytokine-inducible transcription factor with transformation activity. Sun, H.B., Zhu, Y.X., Yin, T., Sledge, G., Yang, Y.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
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