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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A survey of ciguatera: assessment of Puako, Hawaii, associated with ciguatera toxin epidemics in humans.

A survey for the assessment of the ciguatera problem has been determined in Puako, South Kohala, on the Island of Hawaii. This is in the area of persistent ciguateric outbreaks during the months of January through March, caused by a specific species of fish (Cheilinus rhodochrous, red rose wrasse, or po'ou). Analyses of algae, Gambierdiscus toxicus, and various species of fish, including herbivores and carnivores, gave positive indications of Puako as a potential ciguateric area. Algae associated with Gambierdiscus toxicus blooms and the dinoflagellate itself were found in transects A and D. Transects A and D showed 291 G. toxicus per gram of Tolycarpidia glomurata and 9 G. toxicus per gram of Turbinaria sp. with epiphytic Jania sp., respectively. No G. toxicus was found in transects B and C. This may be attributed to the low salinity from intrusion of freshwater in this vicinity. Examinations of the fish, kole, manini, Hawaiian kole, roi, and po'ou by the solid-phase immunoassay showed 89% of fish in the borderline and positive categories from all transects. Extracts of viscera and flesh showed high levels of toxicity in mouse (13 of 23 deaths), particularly in the viscera (gut) of both herbivores and carnivores. The guinea pig atrial analysis generally showed a few ciguatoxin-like, but most were nonciguateric type responses. The data presented in this Puako survey showed evidence of toxic fish associated with ciguatoxin-like and most probably other toxins, either polyethers or non-polyethers as yet unidentified.[1]


  1. A survey of ciguatera: assessment of Puako, Hawaii, associated with ciguatera toxin epidemics in humans. Hokama, Y., Asahina, A.Y., Titus, E., Shirai, J.L., Hong, T.W., Chun, S., Miyahara, J.T., Takata, D., Muranaka, A., Pang, E. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. (1993) [Pubmed]
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