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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Viscera

  • Hereditary non-neuropathic systemic amyloidosis (Ostertag-type) is a rare autosomal dominant disease in which amyloid deposition in the viscera is usually fatal by the fifth decade [1].
  • Altered glutamine metabolism in rat portal drained viscera and hindquarter during hyperammonemia [2].
  • The comparable net portal drained viscera glutamine uptake in normal and portacaval shunted rats changed during liver ischemia from net uptake to release, coinciding with release of most other amino acids [2].
  • Yellow fever virus was recovered in suckling mice and C6/36 cells from blood in both cases, as well as from fragments of liver, spleen, skin, and heart from the first case and from these and other viscera fragments in case 2 [3].
  • It is clear that patients with AL who have advanced amyloid cardiomyopathy or more than 2 major viscera involved with disease are poor candidates for SCT [4].

High impact information on Viscera

  • RESULTS: In tumor-bearing rats, the net uptake of energy substrates (ketones and glutamine) and net protein synthesis increased across the portal drained viscera, whereas mucosal glutamine concentrations decreased [5].
  • The portal drained viscera glutamine release during severe hyperammonemia could be due to intestinal damage [2].
  • The net efflux of nearly all amino acids by the portal-drained viscera increased significantly less (P less than 0.001) in the isoleucine group [6].
  • The portal drained viscera consumed glutamine and produced ammonia, alanine, and citrulline [7].
  • In patients with a first relapse in the viscera, VEGF levels were higher compared with those that relapsed to the bone or soft tissue (P = 0.0004) [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Viscera

  • The response rates to tamoxifen at different sites of metastases were as follows: bones 47%, soft tissues 56%, and viscera 48% [9].
  • Thus, beta adrenoceptor agonists stimulate production of uric acid in tissues other than the liver and the viscera, and hyperuricemia results [10].
  • These findings indicate that taeniasis solium can be transmitted through eating raw or undercooked pork or viscera of pigs following refrigeration at 4 C for less than 30 days [11].
  • Ciguatoxin, the principal toxin responsible for ciguatera, isolated from moray eel viscera, has been separated into two distinct components by alumina chromatography [12].
  • Broiler by-products (heads, feet, and viscera) mixed with 4% dextrose were pasteurized for 4 min at 90 degrees C core temperature, cooled to 20 degrees C, and fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum as starter culture [13].

Biological context of Viscera

  • Systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rates just before abdominal viscera traction were less (p is less than 0.05) in patients paralyzed with d-tubocurarine than with pancuronium despite similar arterial halothane concentrations [14].
  • While the liver utilized 73% of lactate during pregnancy, this value fell to only 42% during lactation, at which time the portal-drained viscera utilized 26% of the lactate [15].
  • Nodularin concentrations reached levels of concern in mussels and in prawn viscera at cell counts as low as 30,000 cells/ml [16].
  • Concomitantly, the incidence of bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes and viscera were reduced significantly at 0.5, 2, 6, and 24 hours postresuscitation in animals receiving polymyxin B (p < 0.05 to 0.01), whereas there were no differences with respect to number of translocating bacteria between the two groups (p > 0.05) [17].
  • When administered to mice during gestation, the heavy metal, cadmium, is known to induce malformations of the neural tube, craniofacial region, limbs, trunk, viscera, and axial skeleton that vary in scope and severity among inbred strains of mice [18].

Anatomical context of Viscera

  • The distribution of NPY-like immunoreactivity in L6 and S1 of the rat spinal cord suggests that an NPY-like peptide may be involved in regulation of pelvic viscera, processing of primary afferent information, and motor regulation of pelvic muscles [19].
  • To investigate this hypothesis, portal drained viscera (intestines) fluxes and jejunal tissue concentrations of ammonia and glutamine were measured in portacaval shunted rats with a ligated bile duct, portacaval shunted, and sham operated rats, seven and 14 days after surgery, and in normal unoperated controls [20].
  • Pitx2, a homeodomain transcription factor, is essential for normal development of the pituitary gland, craniofacial region, eyes, heart, abdominal viscera, and limbs [21].
  • Surface coil MR imaging of abdominal viscera. Part II. The adrenal glands [22].
  • Arteriovenous difference measurements across the portal drained viscera indicated a net glutamate release into the portal vein in control, 60% casein-fed and diabetic rats [23].

Associations of Viscera with chemical compounds

  • More treatment failures at distant sites, such as viscera (P =.02), were observed in the tamoxifen group [24].
  • The LHA is known to contain neurons that are stimulated by falls in circulating glucose but inhibited by feeding-related signals from the viscera; orexin neurons may correspond to this neuronal population [25].
  • Coincident with advances in perioperative management, including parenteral nutrition and mechanical ventilation, has been the introduction of staged reduction of the viscera using prosthetic material [26].
  • The results of this study suggest that: a) antral acidification per se does not inhibit pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion; and b) antral distension with acid, and to a lesser extent with alkali, is inhibitory only if vagal innervation to the fundus and other abdominal viscera is preserved [27].
  • Unlabelled leucine also is produced by the portal-drained viscera, and some is removed immediately by the liver [28].

Gene context of Viscera

  • These findings contrast sharply with the effects of ASIC1, 2, and 3 in skin, suggesting that targeting these subunits with pharmacological agents may have different and more pronounced effects on mechanosensitivity in the viscera [29].
  • We correlate fgf8 deficient laterality defects in the brain and viscera with the absence of KV, supporting a role for KV in proper LR patterning of these structures [30].
  • Substance P, calcitonin gene related peptide and PGE2 co-released from the mouse colon: a new model to study nociceptive and inflammatory responses in viscera, in vitro [31].
  • By in situ hybridization analysis, we show that the Meis2 gene displays spatially restricted expression patterns in the developing nervous system, limbs, face, and in various viscera [32].
  • The RALDH-2 gene is also expressed in specific regions of the developing head, including the tooth buds, inner ear, meninges and pituitary gland, and in several viscera [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Viscera


  1. Human lysozyme gene mutations cause hereditary systemic amyloidosis. Pepys, M.B., Hawkins, P.N., Booth, D.R., Vigushin, D.M., Tennent, G.A., Soutar, A.K., Totty, N., Nguyen, O., Blake, C.C., Terry, C.J. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Altered glutamine metabolism in rat portal drained viscera and hindquarter during hyperammonemia. Dejong, C.H., Kampman, M.T., Deutz, N.E., Soeters, P.B. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Serious adverse events associated with yellow fever 17DD vaccine in Brazil: a report of two cases. Vasconcelos, P.F., Luna, E.J., Galler, R., Silva, L.J., Coimbra, T.L., Barros, V.L., Monath, T.P., Rodigues, S.G., Laval, C., Costa, Z.G., Vilela, M.F., Santos, C.L., Papaiordanou, P.M., Alves, V.A., Andrade, L.D., Sato, H.K., Rosa, E.S., Froguas, G.B., Lacava, E., Almeida, L.M., Cruz, A.C., Rocco, I.M., Santos, R.T., Oliva, O.F., Papaiordanou, C.M. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Autologous stem cell transplantation for primary systemic amyloidosis. Comenzo, R.L., Gertz, M.A. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Glutamine depletion and increased gut permeability in nonanorectic, non-weight-losing tumor-bearing rats. De Blaauw, I., Deutz, N.E., van der Hulst, R.R., von Meyenfeldt, M.F. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Modification of the effects of blood on amino acid metabolism by intravenous isoleucine. Deutz, N.E., Reijven, P.L., Bost, M.C., van Berlo, C.L., Soeters, P.B. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Interorgan ammonia and amino acid metabolism in metabolically stable patients with cirrhosis and a TIPSS. Olde Damink, S.W., Jalan, R., Redhead, D.N., Hayes, P.C., Deutz, N.E., Soeters, P.B. Hepatology (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. High tumor levels of vascular endothelial growth factor predict poor response to systemic therapy in advanced breast cancer. Foekens, J.A., Peters, H.A., Grebenchtchikov, N., Look, M.P., Meijer-van Gelder, M.E., Geurts-Moespot, A., van der Kwast, T.H., Sweep, C.G., Klijn, J.G. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Nandrolone decanoate added to tamoxifen in the treatment of advanced breast cancer. Heinonen, E., Alanko, A., Gröhn, P., Rissanen, P. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Catecholamine-induced hyperuricemia in eviscerated rats with functional hepatectomy. Yonetani, Y., Iwaki, K. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Survival of Taenia solium cysticerci in carcasses of pigs kept at 4 C. Fan, P.C., Ma, Y.X., Kuo, C.H., Chung, W.C. J. Parasitol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Two interchangeable forms of ciguatoxin. Nukina, M., Koyanagi, L.M., Scheuer, P.J. Toxicon (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Microbial and nutritional aspects of feeding fermented feed (poultry by-products) to pigs. Urlings, H.A., Mul, A.J., van 't Klooster, A.T., Bijker, P.G., van Logtestijn, J.G., van Gils, L.G. The Veterinary quarterly. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Circulatory responses and halothane concentrations during gastric or gallbladder traction with and without neuromuscular blockade. Stoelting, R.K., Peterson, C., Madura, J.A. Anesth. Analg. (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. Tissue glucose and lactate metabolism and interconversions in pregnant and lactating sheep. van der Walt, J.G., Baird, G.D., Bergman, E.N. Br. J. Nutr. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Nodularin uptake by seafood during a cyanobacterial bloom. Van Buynder, P.G., Oughtred, T., Kirkby, B., Phillips, S., Eaglesham, G., Thomas, K., Burch, M. Environ. Toxicol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Inhibitory effects of low-dose polymyxin B on hemorrhage-induced endotoxin/bacterial translocation and cytokine formation in rats. Yao, Y.M., Tian, H.M., Sheng, Z.Y., Wang, Y.P., Yu, Y., Sun, S.R., Xu, S.H. The Journal of trauma. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Differential sensitivity of the SWV and C57BL/6 mouse strains to the teratogenic action of single administrations of cadmium given throughout the period of anterior neuropore closure. Hovland, D.N., Machado, A.F., Scott, W.J., Collins, M.D. Teratology (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Distribution of neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity and its relationship to FMRF-amide-like immunoreactivity in the sixth lumbar and first sacral spinal cord segments of the rat. Sasek, C.A., Elde, R.P. J. Neurosci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Intestinal glutamine and ammonia metabolism during chronic hyperammonaemia induced by liver insufficiency. Dejong, C.H., Deutz, N.E., Soeters, P.B. Gut (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. PITX2 is required for normal development of neurons in the mouse subthalamic nucleus and midbrain. Martin, D.M., Skidmore, J.M., Philips, S.T., Vieira, C., Gage, P.J., Condie, B.G., Raphael, Y., Martinez, S., Camper, S.A. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Surface coil MR imaging of abdominal viscera. Part II. The adrenal glands. White, E.M., Edelman, R.R., Stark, D.D., Simeone, J.F., Mueller, P.R., Brady, T.J., Wittenberg, J., Butch, R.J., Ferrucci, J.T. Radiology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Net interorgan transport of L-glutamate in rats occurs via the plasma, not via erythrocytes. Watford, M. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Sequential tamoxifen and aminoglutethimide versus tamoxifen alone in the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal breast cancer patients: results of an Italian cooperative study. Boccardo, F., Rubagotti, A., Amoroso, D., Mesiti, M., Romeo, D., Caroti, C., Farris, A., Cruciani, G., Villa, E., Schieppati, G., Mustacchi, G. J. Clin. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Hypothalamic orexin expression: modulation by blood glucose and feeding. Cai, X.J., Widdowson, P.S., Harrold, J., Wilson, S., Buckingham, R.E., Arch, J.R., Tadayyon, M., Clapham, J.C., Wilding, J., Williams, G. Diabetes (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Selective management of gastroschisis. Swartz, K.R., Harrison, M.W., Campbell, J.R., Campbell, T.J. Ann. Surg. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Neurohumoral inhibitory mechanism initiated by antral distension. Yamagishi, T., Debas, H.T. Ann. Surg. (1981) [Pubmed]
  28. Importance of sites of tracer administration and blood sampling in relation to leucine metabolism. Practical considerations. Pell, J.M., Caldarone, E.M., Bergman, E.N. Biochem. J. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Different contributions of ASIC channels 1a, 2, and 3 in gastrointestinal mechanosensory function. Page, A.J., Brierley, S.M., Martin, C.M., Price, M.P., Symonds, E., Butler, R., Wemmie, J.A., Blackshaw, L.A. Gut (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Roles for fgf8 signaling in left-right patterning of the visceral organs and craniofacial skeleton. Albertson, R.C., Yelick, P.C. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Substance P, calcitonin gene related peptide and PGE2 co-released from the mouse colon: a new model to study nociceptive and inflammatory responses in viscera, in vitro. Roza, C., Reeh, P.W. Pain (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Meis2, a novel mouse Pbx-related homeobox gene induced by retinoic acid during differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. Oulad-Abdelghani, M., Chazaud, C., Bouillet, P., Sapin, V., Chambon, P., Dollé, P. Dev. Dyn. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Restricted expression and retinoic acid-induced downregulation of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (RALDH-2) gene during mouse development. Niederreither, K., McCaffery, P., Dräger, U.C., Chambon, P., Dollé, P. Mech. Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Potentiation, activation and blockade of GABAA receptors by etomidate in the rat sacral dorsal commissural neurons. Hong, Z., Wang, D.S. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm combined with aortic occlusion. Kunitomo, R., Goto, H., Utoh, J., Kitamura, N. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Noninvasive radioisotopic technique for detection of platelet deposition in mitral valve prostheses and quantitation of visceral microembolism in dogs. Dewanjee, M.K., Fuster, V., Rao, S.A., Forshaw, P.L., Kaye, M.P. Mayo Clin. Proc. (1983) [Pubmed]
  37. Extraovarian stage IV peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma presenting as an asymptomatic skin lesion--a case report and literature review. Cowan, L.J., Roller, J.I., Connelly, P.J., Nahhas, W.A. Gynecol. Oncol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  38. Antagonism of peripheral 5-HT4 receptors reduces visceral and cutaneous pain in mice, and induces visceral analgesia after simultaneous inactivation of 5-HT3 receptors. Espejo, E.F., Gil, E. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
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