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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Biliary excretion of biochemically active cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) hepatotoxins in fish.

Previous reports demonstrated that microcystin and related cyanobacteria polypeptides are rapidly cleared from plasma and accumulate in liver tissue. In the present study, we have used their ability to inhibit protein phosphatases to show that these cyanobacteria hepatotoxins are excreted into the bile of experimentally poisoned rainbow trout. At various times after oral administration of hepatotoxic Microcystis aeruginosa, bile samples were analysed for microcystin content by methanol extraction and protein phosphatase assays. An inhibitory principle that specifically suppressed protein phosphatase activity was detected in all bile samples removed between 1 and 72 h after oral exposure to toxic algae. These results indicate that biochemically active microcystin molecules are excreted into the biliary tract of poisoned fish.[1]


  1. Biliary excretion of biochemically active cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) hepatotoxins in fish. Sahin, A., Tencalla, F.G., Dietrich, D.R., Naegeli, H. Toxicology (1996) [Pubmed]
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