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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Altered behavioral responses in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid treated and amphetamine challenged rats.

Although the mechanism of 2,4-D neurotoxicity remains unknown the serotonergic system appears to mediate some of the effects of 2,4-D in rats as reported in our previous studies. In the present study we examine the concept that a challenge to a system may overcome compensatory mechanisms and thereby reveal otherwise hidden neurotoxicant-induced damage. We report the behavioral results of 50 or 100 mg/kg 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) acute exposure plus amphetamine challenge of rats. The "Serotonin Syndrome" (SS) involving prominently head movement, piloerection, moist fur, backing, hunching, Straub tail, fore paw tapping of the nose and pivoting, was exhibited by these rats, being females more affected than males. Immobility, social apathy and asymmetry were also observed. All behaviors were not seen in the 2,4-D treated rats. Stereotyped behaviors were observed earlier and were more prolonged in 2,4-D treated and amphetamine challenged rats than in rats treated only with 5 or 10 mg/kg amphetamine. Spiperone blocked all the SS behaviors. In addition, in these rats, rearing and rotation behaviors were showed and were also sex dependent. We also demonstrate that haloperidol, in a non cataleptic dose, induced catelepsy in 2,4-D treated rats. 2,4-D appears to act through serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms. The intensity of the response is sex dependent. Our study demonstrates that 2,4-D plus amphetamine induces a Serotonergic Syndrome plus additional Dopaminergic modulation.[1]


  1. Altered behavioral responses in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid treated and amphetamine challenged rats. Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., Bortolozzi, A., Duffard, R.O. Neurotoxicology (1995) [Pubmed]
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