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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Piloerection


Psychiatry related information on Piloerection


High impact information on Piloerection

  • Paroxysmal piloerection is a rare manifestation of epilepsy [8].
  • In addition, a rise in body temperature by approximately 2 C was observed at time points at which the effects of hIL-1 beta on 5-HT and corticosterone levels were (near-)maximal. hIL-1 beta-treated rats displayed typical characteristics of sickness behavior, such as immobility, piloerection, and a curled-up body posture [9].
  • Additionally, midodrine appears to cause less frequent and severe adverse effects associated with alpha-receptor agonism such as piloerection and urinary hesitancy [10].
  • We show that animals treated with cyclophosphamide had inflamed bladders and displayed high urinary frequency as well as some indicators of spontaneous pain, such as piloerection and a rounded-back posture [11].
  • A time-dependent sensitization was induced in mice, wherein reexposure to mTNF-alpha 28 days (but not 1 day) following the initial cytokine treatment provoked marked signs of illness (diminished activity, ptosis, piloerection) and increased plasma corticosterone levels [12].

Biological context of Piloerection


Anatomical context of Piloerection


Associations of Piloerection with chemical compounds

  • For objective ratings, only the items rhinorrhea, piloerection and signs of anxiety were significantly associated with the methadone concentrations [18].
  • Morphine (total dose = 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 200 nmol), DAMGO and DPDPE (total dose = 0.1, 1, 10, 100 nmol of each) produced piloerection and sedation, indicating that the responses of guinea pigs to mu- and delta-opioid agonists differed from those of rats and mice [19].
  • The animals exhibited hypervigilance, aggressiveness, tachypnea, piloerection and frequent change of posture and also had raised plasma cortisol levels [20].
  • Clinical signs associated with isoeugenol exposure included dose-related evidence of sedation and aversion to treatment (rooting behavior) in all isoeugenol groups, as well as an increased incidence of piloerection at >/= 500 mg/kg/day [21].
  • During the clonidine-infusion period piloerection and sedation were prominent [22].

Gene context of Piloerection

  • Unlike TRH, amphetamine did not produce wet-dog shakes, tail elevation and piloerection [23].
  • In the rat, systemic administration of murine monoclonal antibodies against acetylcholinesterase caused rapid piloerection and ptosis (within 30-60 min after the injection) [24].
  • Changes in audiogenic seizure susceptibility were accompanied by piloerection, ptosis and loss of spontaneous locomotor and exploratory behaviour [25].
  • Abrupt withdrawal of PCP after infusion for 7 days resulted in an abstinence syndrome with the following signs: piloerection, increased susceptibility to audiogenic seizures, transient weight loss and reductions in exploratory activity and rotarod performance [26].
  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Mice were observed for time to onset of symptoms (piloerection, agitation, and tremor) and mortality at 1, 24, and 48 hours [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Piloerection

  • On days 29 and 82, functional observations in 5,000 and 10,000 ppm rats included labored or increased respiration, mild tremors, walking on tiptoes, hunched posture, piloerection, crouching over, impaired coordination of movement, ataxia, and pupillary constriction [28].


  1. Antitumor activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha conjugated with polyvinylpyrrolidone on solid tumors in mice. Kamada, H., Tsutsumi, Y., Yamamoto, Y., Kihira, T., Kaneda, Y., Mu, Y., Kodaira, H., Tsunoda, S.I., Nakagawa, S., Mayumi, T. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. IL-18 and IL-12 induce intestinal inflammation and fatty liver in mice in an IFN-gamma dependent manner. Chikano, S., Sawada, K., Shimoyama, T., Kashiwamura, S.I., Sugihara, A., Sekikawa, K., Terada, N., Nakanishi, K., Okamura, H. Gut (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Neurochemical and behavioral effects of systemic and intranigral administration of N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in the rat. Chiueh, C.C., Markey, S.P., Burns, R.S., Johannessen, J.N., Pert, A., Kopin, I.J. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. High-dose clonidine motor syndrome: relationship to serotonin syndrome. Pranzatelli, M.R., Schultz, L., Snodgrass, S.R. Behav. Brain Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Reduction in insulitis following administration of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha in the NOD mouse. Campbell, I.L., Oxbrow, L., Harrison, L.C. J. Autoimmun. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Behavioural and biochemical evidence for signs of abstinence in mice chronically treated with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Hutcheson, D.M., Tzavara, E.T., Smadja, C., Valjent, E., Roques, B.P., Hanoune, J., Maldonado, R. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Prevention of endotoxin-induced mortality by antitissue factor immunization. Dackiw, A.P., McGilvray, I.D., Woodside, M., Nathens, A.B., Marshall, J.C., Rotstein, O.D. Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Pilomotor seizures. Green, J.B. Neurology (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Local administration of recombinant human interleukin-1 beta in the rat hippocampus increases serotonergic neurotransmission, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity, and body temperature. Linthorst, A.C., Flachskamm, C., Holsboer, F., Reul, J.M. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Midodrine. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use in orthostatic hypotension and secondary hypotensive disorders. McTavish, D., Goa, K.L. Drugs (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Peptidergic sensory and parasympathetic fiber sprouting in the mucosa of the rat urinary bladder in a chronic model of cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. Dickson, A., Avelino, A., Cruz, F., Ribeiro-da-Silva, A. Neuroscience (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Sensitization to the neuroendocrine, central monoamine and behavioural effects of murine tumor necrosis factor-alpha: peripheral and central mechanisms. Hayley, S., Wall, P., Anisman, H. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Dopamine-induced localized cutaneous vasoconstriction and piloerection. Ross, M. Archives of dermatology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Altered behavioral responses in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid treated and amphetamine challenged rats. Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., Bortolozzi, A., Duffard, R.O. Neurotoxicology (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Acute and subacute inhalation toxicity of dichlorosilane in male ICR mice. Nakashima, H., Omae, K., Takebayashi, T., Ishizuka, C., Sakurai, H., Yamazaki, K., Nakaza, M., Shibata, T., Kudo, M., Koshi, S. Arch. Toxicol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Screening of clonidine effect on brain acetylcholine content, anticonvulsant and local anaesthetic properties. Ahmed, K.Z., Crossl, J., Pendse, V.K., Akkad, I.N. Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. The local side effects of transdermally absorbed nicotine. Smith, E.W., Smith, K.A., Maibach, H.I., Andersson, P.O., Cleary, G., Wilson, D. Skin Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Subjective and objective symptoms in relation to plasma methadone concentration in methadone patients. Hiltunen, A.J., Lafolie, P., Martel, J., Ottosson, E.C., Boreus, L.O., Beck, O., Borg, S., Hjemdahl, P. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of intracerebroventricularly administered mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid agonists on locomotor activity of the guinea pig and the pharmacology of the locomotor response to U50,488H. Bot, G., Chahl, L.A., Brent, P.J., Johnston, P.A. Neuropharmacology (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. A primate model of anxiety. Palit, G., Kumar, R., Chowdhury, S.R., Gupta, M.B., Saxena, R.C., Srimal, R.C., Dhawan, B.N. European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of isoeugenol in Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats. George, J.D., Price, C.J., Marr, M.C., Myers, C.B., Jahnke, G.D. Toxicol. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Withdrawal syndrome after continuous infusion of clonidine in the normotensive rat. Thoolen, M.J., Timmermans, P.B., Van Zwieten, P.A. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Involvement of both opiate and catecholaminergic receptors in the behavioural excitation provoked by thyrotropin-releasing hormone: comparisons with amphetamine. Lin, M.T., Chan, H.K., Chen, C.F., Teh, G.W. Neuropharmacology (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of antibodies against acetylcholinesterase on the expression of peptides and catecholamine synthesizing enzymes in the rat adrenal gland. Dagerlind, A., Brimijoin, S., Goldstein, M., Hökfelt, T. Neuroscience (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Comparative assessment of dopamine agonist aporphines as anticonvulsants in two models of reflex epilepsy. Anlezark, G.M., Blackwood, D.H., Meldrum, B.S., Ram, V.J., Neumeyer, J.L. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Continuous intravenous infusion of phencyclidine in unrestrained rats results in the rapid induction of tolerance and physical dependence. Spain, J.W., Klingman, G.I. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Methamphetamine toxicity prevented by activated charcoal in a mouse model. McKinney, P.E., Tomaszewski, C., Phillips, S., Brent, J., Kulig, K. Annals of emergency medicine. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of 2- and 4-Methylimidazole (CAS No. 693-98-1 and 822-36-6) administered in feed to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Chan, P.C. Toxicity report series. (2004) [Pubmed]
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