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MeSH Review

Head Movements

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Disease relevance of Head Movements

  • 2. Acute PCP (1, 3, and 10 mg kg-1, s.c.) treatment induced dose-dependent hyperlocomotion, motor incoordination and stereotyped behaviours, consisting of sniffing, head movement and ataxia in mice [1].
  • Baclofen (20 mg kg(-1)) decreased stereotyped head movements, chewing, chatter, ptosis and body weight loss, induced by naloxone (10 mg kg(-1)) in morphine-dependent rats [2].
  • In experiments involving inoculation of S. aureus and Escherichia coli onto the polyurethane of unused cot mattresses, aerial release of the species correlated well (R2 > or = 0.950) with inoculation density when simulated infant head movement was applied [3].
  • Motion sickness resistance was tested by standardized head movements while accelerating at 0.2 degree/sec2 to a maximum rotation of 240 degrees/sec, with an intermediate plateau of 10 min at 180 degrees/sec [4].
  • Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a disorder in which patients suffer from acute rotatory vertigo due to the presence of free otoconial debris migrating into one or more semicircular canals during head movements and resulting in abnormal stimulation of the ampullary crest [5].

Psychiatry related information on Head Movements


High impact information on Head Movements

  • The average horizontal position of gaze and of head movements lay right of the body's mid-sagittal plane, the average eye-in-head position right of the head midline [10].
  • Rapid head movements (termed checking) were significantly increased at the beginning of Phase I and again when the haloperidol was withdrawn at the beginning of Phase III [11].
  • Most importantly, ser-2 null mutants (pk1357) fail to suppress head movements while reversing in response to nose-touch, suggesting a role for SER-2 in the regulation of foraging behavior, and fail to respond to tyramine in assays measuring serotonin-dependent pharyngeal pumping [12].
  • Administration of ZJ43 significantly reduced PCP-induced motor activation, falling while walking, stereotypic circling behavior, and head movements [13].
  • However, rolipram did not alter MAP-induced sniffing and repetitive head movements [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Head Movements


Biological context of Head Movements


Anatomical context of Head Movements

  • Role of pontomedullary reticular formation neurons in horizontal head movements: an ibotenic acid lesion study in the cat [20].
  • In a patient of generalised dystonia treated with bilateral pallidal stimulation, serial surface EMGs recorded from the neck muscles during alternating head movements revealed progressive reduction in hypertonic activity and reversal of co-contraction to reciprocal contraction, which preceded clinical improvement [21].
  • To study the neural basis for the regulation of vestibulocollic reflexes during voluntary head movements, the effects of stimulation of the precruciate cortex near the presylvian sulcus (neck area of the motor cortex) and the frontal eye fields (FEF) on vestibular neurons were studied in cerebellectomized cats anesthetized with alpha chloralose [22].
  • Application of 5-HT (1-50 mM) into the midbrain immediately adjacent to the SC stimulation electrode resulted in a pronounced (approximately four-fold for 50 mM 5-HT) dose- and time-dependent increase in stimulation thresholds to elicit head movements [23].
  • The results suggest that gabaculine-induced sniffing and head movement were mediated by nigral GABAergic synapses and were independent of any dopaminergic system, and that the high ambulation at 24 h after operation may have been due to a non-specific effect of abnormal GABA elevation in thalamus and/or nigra [24].

Associations of Head Movements with chemical compounds

  • We found that pre-training electrolytic lesions of the amygdala's lateral (LA) nucleus blocked acquisition of conditioned freezing to the CS, and also significantly attenuated unconditioned head movements evoked by the US [25].
  • This suggested that the observed changes in head movement and posture resulted from inactivation of the caudal MRF and not spread of the muscimol to the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) [26].
  • When duloxetine (12.5-100 mg/kg p.o.) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (80 and 100 mg/kg i.p.), a precursor of serotonin, were administered simultaneously to mice and rats, head movement behavior and tremor were observed [27].
  • Significant sensitization of cocaine-induced stereotyped head movements was evident in animals given 15 or 30 mg/kg chronically in the experimental chamber, but not when these same doses were given in the home cage [28].
  • Social status was determined by constructing a sociogram. d-Amphetamine (0.3--1.0 mg/kg orally, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg IM) increased stereotyped head movements and reduced the time spent in the sitting posture in all monkeys (N = 25) regardless of sex, age, or social status [29].

Gene context of Head Movements

  • Heterozygous Lp mice are characterized by a "looped-tail" and wobbly head movements [30].
  • When mice were positioned on a foam bed which allowed head movement at impact, all 14 wild-type mice tested survived, but 12 of 15 GFAP-null mice died within a few minutes [31].
  • Patients with peripheral vestibular disorders (except for BPPV) showed significantly greater head movement values in all three directions and smaller ratios of anteroposterior component to lateral component in the head movement, as compared with those of normal subjects [32].
  • The circling rat is an autosomal recessive mutant (homozygous ci2/ci2) that displays lateralized circling behaviour, locomotor hyperactivity, ataxia and stereotypic head-movement [33].
  • METHODS: Ten patients with purely tonic cervical dystonia with fixed postural deviation and 20 patients with cervical dystonia with phasic head movements were investigated at least 3 months after botulinum toxin injections [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Head Movements

  • While SKF 38393 induced EEG changes without concomitant signs of stereotyped behaviour, the injection of both LY 171555 and apomorphine also elicited marked behavioural effects, mostly stereotyped mouth and head movements [35].
  • In the current study, we controlled arousal using a mental arithmetic task and precisely equated the exposure history (number of head movements during rotation) of a placebo, control group and an experimental group who had received promethazine [36].
  • In the adult form of typical cervical dystonia we do not recommend any standard laboratory or imaging tests if the neurological examination is normal aside from the abnormal head movements [37].
  • Motile sperm count (MSC), motility, curvilinear velocity (VCL), linearity, and amplitude of lateral head movement were compared between patients and healthy donors [38].


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  16. The protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin, causes exacerbation of the iminodipropionitrile-induced spasmodic dyskinetic syndrome in rats. Stennett, R., Katz, M., Jackson-Lewis, V., Fahn, S., Cadet, J.L. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Amphetamine stereotypy in cats and neurotransmitter interactions in the caudate nucleus. III. Effects of intracaudate injections of quipazine, cyproheptadine and electrical stimulation of the raphe dorsal nucleus. Moyanova, S.G., Rousseva, S.P. Acta physiologica et pharmacologica Bulgarica. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Role of the cerebellar flocculus region in the coordination of eye and head movements during gaze pursuit. Belton, T., McCrea, R.A. J. Neurophysiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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  21. Reversal of hypertonic co-contraction after bilateral pallidal stimulation in generalised dystonia: a clinical and electromyogram case study. Liu, X., Tailor, J., Wang, S., Yianni, J., Gregory, R., Stein, J., Aziz, T. Mov. Disord. (2004) [Pubmed]
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  23. Orienting and defensive behaviors elicited by superior colliculus stimulation in rats: effects of 5-HT depletion, uptake inhibition, and direct midbrain or frontal cortex application. Dringenberg, H.C., Dennis, K.E., Tomaszek, S., Martin, J. Behav. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
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