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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Antiestrogen inhibition of cell cycle progression in breast cancer cells in associated with inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase activity and decreased retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation.

To define the mechanisms by which antiestrogens inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation, the effects of the antiestrogen ICI 182780 on G1 cyclins and their cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) partners were investigated in MCF-7 cells. Inhibition of entry into S phase became evident 9 h after treatment, with the proportion of cells in S phase reaching a minimum by 24 h. ICI 182780 increased the proportion of the hypophosphorylated, growth inhibitory form of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB). This change began at 4-6 h, preceding effects on S phase. This suggests that there are early effects on the activities of CDKs that target pRB that are not merely a consequence of changes in cell cycle progression. The kinase activity of Cdk2 decreased to low levels at 18-24 h when changes in S phase and pRB phosphorylation were well advanced. An earlier effect was seen on kinase activity associated with immunoprecipitated cyclin D1, which was reduced approximately 40% by 12 h, with further decreases at 18-24 h. Cdk2 and Cdk4 protein levels remained constant over 24 h. Cyclin D1 messenger RNA and protein were down-regulated by ICI 182780 from 2 h, with levels halved at 8 h. ICI 182780 also increased the expression of the CDK inhibitors p27KIP1 and p21WAF1/CIP1 at later times. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis that antiestrogens block entry of cells into S phase and inhibit cell proliferation as the consequence of an early decline in pRB phosphorylation contributed to by reduced cyclin D1/Cdk4 activity. At later times, increased CDK inhibitor abundance may act to repress Cdk2 and Cdk4 activities, causing additional reductions in pRB phosphorylation, thus maintaining the antiestrogen blockade of cell cycle progression.[1]


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