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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Rapid appearance and asymmetric distribution of glucose transporter SGTP4 at the apical surface of intramammalian-stage Schistosoma mansoni.

Adult Schistosoma mansoni blood flukes reside in the mesenteric veins of their vertebrate hosts, where they absorb immense quantities of glucose through their tegument by facilitated diffusion. Previously, we obtained S. mansoni cDNAs encoding facilitated-diffusion schistosome glucose transporter proteins 1 and 4 (SGTP1 and SGTP4) and localized SGTP1 to the basal membranes of the tegument and the underlying muscle. In this study, we characterize the expression and localization of SGTP4 during the schistosome life cycle. Antibodies specific to SGTP4 appear to stain only the double-bilayer, apical membranes of the adult parasite tegument, revealing an asymmetric distribution relative to the basal transporter SGTP1. On living worms, SGTP4 is available to surface biotinylation, suggesting that it is exposed at the hose-parasite interface. SGTP4 is detected shortly after the transformation of free-living, infectious cercariae into schistosomula and coincides with the appearance of the double membrane. Within 15 min after transformation, anti-SGTP4 staining produces a bright, patchy distribution at the surface of schistosomula, which becomes contiguous over the entire surface of the schistosomula by 24 hr after transformation. SGTP4 is not detected in earlier developmental stages (eggs, sporocysts, and cercariae) that do not possess the specialized double membrane. Thus, SGTP4 appears to be expressed only in the mammalian stages of the parasite's life cycle and specifically localized within the host-interactive, apical membranes of the tegument.[1]


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